Population Dynamics in Historical and Comparative Perspective - Chapter 8 …
Population Dynamics in Historical and Comparative Perspective - Chapter 8
Measures and Models of Growth
: A long-range change in population growth rates as the result of declining levels of fertility and/or mortality; especially Europe's three-stage transition that began in about 1650.
:Approaches to estimation and projection that employ information about births, deaths, and migration; the cohort survival method is of this.
: The measurement of a population's growth by subtracting its size at an earlier date from that at a later date.
Linear Growth Model
: "arithmetic growth," The basis for estimates and projections that assume a constant rate of growth between two dates.
Exponential Growth Model
:The basis for estimates and projections that assume a continual increase in the rate of growth between two dates.
: The number of years it takes a population to double; it is approximately equal to 70 divided by the annual percentage growth rate.
: G = (B-D) + (I-O) B-D = births minus deaths = natural increase I-O = in and out migration, makes up net migration.
Demographic Transition and Social Change
The Four Stage Process: two basic types of transitions: 1. Upward, a shift from low to high rates of growth. 2. downward, shift from high to low.
Stage 1 to 2: population growth rates were low because of high morality, despite equally high levels of fertility.
: The intentional lowering of death rates through the application of nutrition, sanitation, and public health practices.
Stage 2 to 3: Family planning
: The belief that high fertility is desirable.
Stages 3 to 4: completed the demographic transition full-circle.
The Prospects of Future Population Growth
Worlds population by 2050 will have nearly doubled in size since 1990 from 5.3 to 10.02 billion.
Mortality rates in Asia, Africa, and Latin America continue to decline much faster than birth rates.
Stage III is the density of those nations that are currently in Stage II.
Gemeinschaft and Gessellschaft
:Literally, "community and society;" a paired concept that emphasizes the difference between traditional rural life and modern urban society.
: The intentional lowering of fertility levels through family planning and related methods.
Second Demographic Transition
: The shift observed in many industrialized population toward below-replacement levels of fertility.
The U.S. Population: Growth and Change
There is no universal consensus on the definition of elderly.
: The term formerly used to describe the third stage of Europe's demographic transition, suggesting potential future population loss; this potential has now been realized throughout Europe.
The population size was still increasing but, at current rates, it would not do so for long.