Chapter 10: Motivating Employees - Coggle Diagram
Chapter 10: Motivating Employees
In these studies: Elton Mayo, foud that human factors such as feelings of involvement and participation led to greater productivity gains than did physical changes in the workplacce.
Levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs:
Abraham Maslow studied basic human motivation and he foud out that motivation was based on needs. A person with an unfilled need would be motivated to satisfy it and a satisfied need no longer served as motivation.
From bottom to top, the level of needs are the following: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization.
Managers can use Maslow's theory, they can recognize what unmet needs a person has and design work so that it satisfies those needs.
Motivators and hygiene factors by Herzberg:
Herzberg foud out that while some factors motivate workers (motivators), others cause job dissatisfaction if missing but are not motivators if present.
Factors called motivators:
work itself, achievement, recognition, responsibility, growth, and advancement.
Hygiene (maintenance) factors:
company policies, supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relationships, and salary.
Theory X, Theory Y, Theory Z
assumes average person dislikes work and will avoid it if possible. Therefore, people must be forced, controlled, and threatened with punishment to accomplish organizational goals.
It assumes people like working and will accept responsibility for achieving goals if rewarded for doing so.
This one was based on Japanese management styles and stresses long-term emplolyment; collective decision making; individual responsibility; slow evaluation and promotion; implicit, informal control with explicit, formalized control; moderately specialized career paths; and a holistic concern for emplouees (including family).
Goal Setting, expectancy, reinforcement, equity theories:
based on the notion that setting ambitious but attainable goals will lead to high levels of motivation and performance if the goals are accepted and accompanies by feedback, and if conditions in the organization make achievement possible.
Employee expectations can affect an individual's motivation. Key elemts: (1) Can I accomplish the task? (2) If I do accomplish it, what's my reward? (3) Is the reward worth the effort?
Positive reinforcements are rewards like praise, recognition, or raises that a workr might strive to receive after performing well. Negative reinforcers are punishments such as reprimands, pay cuts, or firing that a worker.
Employees try to maintain equity between inputs and outputs compare to other employees in similar positions.
Motivation into action:
Characteristics of work that affect motivation and performance:
skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback.
Job enrichment that increases motivation:
Job enlargement combines a series of tasks into one challenging and interesting assignment. Job rotation makes work more interesting by moving employees from one job to another.