long term oral contraceptive use, things to consider before choosing birth…
long term oral contraceptive use
female reproductive structures
ovary which produces gametes and sex hormones
uterine tubes; also known as Fallopian tubes acts to transport secreted oocyte toward the uterus and is the target site for fertilization if it occurs
uterus is a pear shaped thick walled and muscular organ that will be the home of the developing embryo until birth
vagina is another thick walled fibromuscular tube that measure about 10cm long and is the birth canal as well as the site for sexual intercourse
clitoris contains erectile tissue that stimulates sexual arousal and climax
mammary glands or breast located within the thoracic wall composed of tubuloalveolar glands that produce and secrete breast milk
male reproductive structures
testis which produce gametes and sex hormones
a series of 6 ducts semen is passed through prior to ejaculation from the body including the rete testis, efferent ductules, epididymis, ductus deferens,ejaculatory duct, and urethra
accessory glands such as the prostate, the seminal vesicles and the bulbourethral glands all secrete their contents to mix with semen before ejaculation
the penis is the males external sex organ used to penetrate and deposit semen into the womans vagina
a two phase 28 day cycle responsible for the maturation and delivery of oocytes from the ovary to the uterus
during the first 13 days, known as the follicular phase FSH and LH stimulate primordial follicles in the ovary to become primary follicles.
on day 14 there is a surge in LH production which causes an increase in antrum fluid and pressure, causing ovulation. or the expulsion of the oocyte from the primary follicle.
if the oocyte is not fertilized, then no further estrogen and progesterone stimulation of the uterine lining will occur and it sloughs off and sheds in a process termed menstruation.
the uterine cycle is also a 28 day, 3 phase cycle controlled by estrogen and progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum
The menstrual phase occurs approximately during days 1–5 of the cycle; this phase is marked by
sloughing of the functional layer and lasts through the period of menstrual bleeding
During the proliferative phase, the initial development of the new stratum functionalis occurs, which overlaps the time of the follicle growth and estrogen secretion by the ovary
The secretory phase occurs approximately during days 15–28; during this phase, progesterone secretion from the corpus luteum results in increased vascularization and development of uterine glands
abstinence; the practice of not having sex. the most effective form of contraceptive.
withdrawal method; the practice of removing the penis from the vagina before ejaculation. still has 19% rate of pregnancy.
barrier methods include using latex condoms, vaginal caps, and diaphragms to trap the semen before it reaches the uterus. only 80% effective on average.
intrauterine devices are available and work by secreting inhibiting hormones directly into the uterus. about 98% effective.
chemical methods, usually involve taking pills daily that use hormones to prevent pregnancy. usually 95% effective if used correctly
i would inform this couple on several different types of contraceptives and have them consider the previous factors to determine which is best for their situation.
based on what information they have given me, i would recommend
with the idea of not wanting any more children this would be the most effective method. you would also not have to remember to take pills or insert IUD's on a monthly basis. NOT REVERSIBLE.
3) IUD device
these are highly recommended because of the high success rate in preventing pregnancy. they are inserted monthly and are very effective if used as intended.
2) implantation device
implanted devices are very effective at preventing pregnancy and have the added benefit of being long term contraceptives. these can be used for several years without tampering before becoming ineffective
based on the information given, i would NOT recommend
1) withdrawal method
the most ineffective method for preventing pregnancy
2) hormonal therapy
has the most side effects, especially for women over 35 who smoke or have previous health conditions
3 )fertility monitoring
also pretty ineffective, and can be difficult to keep track of. usually works best when trying to get pregnant. not prevent.
things to consider before choosing birth control methods
effectiveness of said method
is it permanent?
does it prevent STI's?