THE DEVELOPMENT OF POETRY - Coggle Diagram
THE DEVELOPMENT OF POETRY
THE MEDIEVAL LYRIC:
Initially it was religious, then concentrated on the theme of nature and love.
Some lyrics are sarcastic, take on satire, humorous, and sometimes even crude.
In the Middle Ages the lyric spread. it, accompanied by a musical instrument, was a way to express emotions.
THE MAIN FEATURES OF ANGLO-SAXON POETRY:
Regarding the formal aspect, the Anglo-Saxon poetry was characterized by the use of alliterations, stresses and the kenning, a particular phrase used instead of name or noun
The litote ( an understatement in which an affirmative is stated by negating its opposite) and the riddle (a linguistic guessing game meant to mislead or mystify) were used in the Anglo-saxon poetry.
The poet, called "scop", sang epics celebrating cultural values, accompanied by the harp, in large ceremonies.
Because it was an oral tradition, poems could be embellished, modified as they were transferred from one scop to the other and that is why the authors are all anonymous.
This type of literature was anonymous, it was transmitted orally until the 12th century, written down by church clerics.
THE METRICAL ROMANCES:
Metrical romances came from France, Rome and Britain.
They were tales in verse about love, chivarly and supernatural creatures.
Metrical romances were originally written in Old French and later translated into German and English, and they were brought to England by the Normans.
Characters are supernatural creatures, like monsters, and ordinary people who exist because they are connected with heroes.
The society described is aristocratic and military.
The narrative is objective and made up of flashes and typical scenes, like banquets and battles.
The style is elevated, with a large use of allitteration, stresses and breaks. The vocabulary is rich and vivid.
An example of epic poem is Beowulf: it begins In Media Res, or “in middle” of the action, common for poetry of the Anglo-Saxon era
The epic poem is a long narrative poetical composition,
with the aim of celebrating heroic values and pushing all men to do glorious actions.
An isolated speaker expresses the loss of friendship and splendor of the past. The reasons for the situation are implicit and the images active.
The favourite themes is the figure of the exile or wracca, which haunts tha Anglo-saxon imagination as a constant fear of a possible dissolution of the clan due to intrernal conflict or external attack.
Outside the bonds of the clan, there was a hostile world where it was difficult to establish new relationships, so the main character of the elegy is that of the lone wanderer, with whom the audience can share a moving view of the human condition.
The dissolution of the clan was the worst fate for an individual: Alone in the desert even the strongest felt alone, vulnerable and exposed to attack.
It is a lyrical poem , generally in the form of a dramatic monologue
Ballads were composed between the 12th and 14th centuries. They were anonymous and oral, and were intended for singing and dancing
The language was simple and included formulaic phrases.
There is a mixture of dialog and narration, the speaker doesn't introduce his personality and there is no moralizing.