Logistic regression (or logit model) is a GLM in which the outcome variable is binary (0 or 1) and is presumed to follow a logistic distribution, and the goal of the regression analysis is to predict the probability of the successful outcome by fitting data into a logistic curve. An example is predicting the probability of heart attack within a specific period, based on predictors such as age, body mass index, exercise regimen, and so forth. Logistic regression is extremely popular in the medical sciences. Effect size estimation is based on an “odds ratio,” representing the odds of an event occurring in one group versus the other.
Probit regression (or probit model) is a GLM in which the outcome variable can vary between 0 and 1 (or can assume discrete values 0 and 1) and is presumed to follow a standard normal distribution, and the goal of the regression is to predict the probability of each outcome. This is a popular technique for predictive analysis in the actuarial science, financial services, insurance, and other industries for applications such as credit scoring based on a person’s credit rating, salary, debt and other information from her loan application. Probit and logit regression tend to demonstrate similar regression coefficients in comparable applications (binary outcomes); however the logit model is easier to compute and interpret.
Path analysis is a multivariate GLM technique for analyzing directional relationships among a set of variables. It allows for examination of complex nomological models where the dependent variable in one equation is the independent variable in another equation, and is widely used in contemporary social science research.
Time series analysis is a technique for analyzing time series data, or variables that continually changes with time. Examples of applications include forecasting stock market fluctuations and urban crime rates. This technique is popular in econometrics, mathematical finance, and signal processing. Special techniques are used to correct for auto-correlation, or correlation within values of the same variable across time.