Concepts of Motivation and Emotion (Evolving concepts of emotion and…
Concepts of Motivation and Emotion
Taormina & Gao (2013)
measuring satisfaction of (Maslow's) needs
assess correlations with
a) each. of the other needs
b) social and personality measures
does level of satisfaction of a need predict satisfaction of the upper need in the hierarchy?
yes, satisfaction if a need predicts level of satisfaction of the need up next in the hierarchy - support for hierarchical nature of the needs
assess satisfaction of each need
is life satisfaction predicted by satisfaction of the needs?
validating Maslow's model (?)
what is a need?
drive theory: drive is an activity of an organism resulting from a persistent disequilibrium - which is created by an insufficiency of deficiency of a thing (water, food, rest, e.g.)
a thing is not a need, the lack of a thing creates need!
Evolving concepts of emotion and motivation - Berridge (2018)
recent developments & debates
motivation-as-drive vs motivation as incentive
'wanting', 'liking', cognitive desire
are emotions necessarily feelings?
not confuse emotion with motivation
Maslows motivational hierarchy
a lack of close.lasting, emotionally pleasant interactions with other people in groups as well as. in intimate dyads
lack of protections - shelter from environmental dangers, personal protection from physical harm, legal protection, structure, stability
lack of self esteem - or respect from others
lack of chemicals, nutrients, internal (health), external (e.g. temperature) conditions necessary to survive
the attribution approach to motivation and emotion - Weiner (2014)
Atkinson's theory of achievement motivation
strivings are determined by the anticipated emotions of pride and shame
anticipated pride > shame - approach
shame > pride - inhibition
other dimensional antecedents of self- and other-directed achievement-related emotions following success for failure
only pride and shame as affective experience following success or failure?
early motivation theories around pleasure / pain principle
attribution theory (of emotion)
feelings are determined by thoughts - specifically beliefs about causality
huge number of possible attributions (causes) for not so many following emotions
causal locus - internal / external?
causal control (some overlap with locus and stability)
role of emotions as bridging the gap between thinking and action
attributions - emotions - directing actions
the laws of emotion
law of change, habituation
law of concern
law of comparative feeling
law of situational meaning
law of hedonic asymmetry
evolutionary explanation: events that evoke negative feelings are usually those that are threatening and that require action + if positive feelings are more fleeting, you are constantly and more motivated to actively look for things that evoke positive emotions
law of apparent reality
news about crisis, perceived reality - using video footage to increase emotional impact
observed regularities, (automatic) mechanisms of emotions
law of emotional momentum
law of lightest load and greatest gain
law of care for consequence
modularity of emotion
law of closure
cause of emotion is relative, but the response is not
emotions are 'closed off' to outside judgement, emotions are absolute - no degrees in between