WEEK FIVE: Managerial Functions (POLC) ( (ELEMENTS OF ORGANISING:, Work…
WEEK FIVE: Managerial Functions (POLC)
Types of Planning
Arranging and structuring work to accomplish the organisation’s goals. This is he process of creating an organisation’s structure and formal arrangements of the jobs within that formal structure. Organisational design - developing or changing organisational structure
A leader is: Someone who can influence others who may or may not possess managerial authority
the process of influencing a group to achieve goals
Ideally all managers should be leaders - realistically how true is this in real life.
A combination of approaches (i.e. personal observation, statistical reports, oral reports, and written reports)
More critical to the control process than how we measure. Control criteria - employee satisfaction. turnover rate, absenteeism rates, budgets etc.
Comparing Acceptable range of variation
Taking managerial action
Correct actual performance: Immediate corrective versus basic corrective action
Revise the standard: goals may have been too high or too low
ELEMENTS OF ORGANISING:
Work specialisation (dividing work activities into specific job tasks)
Departmentalisation (formal grouping of jobs),
Chain of command (authority, responsibility, transparency, and unity)
Span of control (number of subordinates a manager can
manage efficiently and effectively),
Centralisation/decentralisation (degree to which decision making
is controlled - by a few or delegated to many)
Formalisation (the degree to which jobs within an organisation are standardised and the extent
to which employee behaviour is guided by rules and procedures ie scientific approach).
Defining the organisation’s goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals, concerned with both ends (goals) as well as means (strategy). Two types: informal (ad hoc) & formal (regimented). Planning provides direction, reduces uncertainty, minimises waste and redundancy, establishes goals and standards used for controlling.
The process of monitoring, comparing and correcting work performance. It is the final link of the four functions of management, control is necessary for: employee empowerment, encourages managers’ to delegate and protects the organisation and its assets.
Elements of planning
include goals and plans ie strategies. Goals are desired outcomes ie ends that provide direction. There are multiple types eg. financial, environmental, social etc. There are also stated vs real goals.
Plans document how goals are going to be accomplished and provide a map.
TYPES OF ORGANISATIONS:
MECHANISTIC: High specialisation, rigid departmentalisation, high chain
of command, narrow spans of control, high formalisation and centralised.
ORGANIC: Cross functional teams, cross hierarchical teams,
free flow of information, wide spans of control, low formalisation and decentralised.
Trait theories: Leaders are born and cannot be trained
Behavioural theories: Leadership is more than possessing a few generic traits
Duality of leadership: focus on task vs. focus on people
Contingency theories: Effective leadership requires more than an understanding of traits and behaviours
ability to ‘read’ and ‘adapt’ to situational circumstances as important