TEACHER EXPECTATIONS AND LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES (STUDI DELLA RICERCA…
TEACHER EXPECTATIONS AND LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES
Il background socio-economico dell'insegnante influenza la scelta degli studenti con aspettative positive?
Le aspettative dell'insegnante creano diverse opportunità di apprendimento in base all'etnia degli studenti?
Quali sono i fattori che influenzano l'insegnante a offrire diverse opportunità? stereotipi, implicit prejudice
La profezia che si autoavvera è più evidente per gli studenti di minoranze etniche? Jussim risponde, Aboriginal
Quali sono le caratteristiche e abilità che uno studente deve possedere per avere successo?
STUDI DELLA RICERCA BIBLIOGRAFICA
Teachers’ attitudes towards students with high- and low-educated parents
The Spatiality of Schooling: A Quest for Equitable Classrooms and High Expectations for Low-Income Students of Color UTILE perchè social identitiy contingencies
Ethnicity and Teacher Expectations in New Zealand
Expecting the best for students
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: How Teachers' Attributions, Expectations, and Stereotypes Influence the Learning Opportunities Afforded Aboriginal Students
The implicit prejudiced attitudes of teachers: Relations to teacher expectations and the ethnic achievement gap
ELENCO STUDI PER T. EXPECTATIONS AND SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY:
Jussim, L. (1989). Teacher Expectations: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies, Perceptual Biases, and Accuracy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(3), 469-480.
Brophy, J. (1983). Research on the self-fulfilling prophecy and teacher expectations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75(5), 631-661.
Gentrup, S., Lorenz, G., Kristen, C., & Kogan, I. (2020). Self-fulfilling prophecies in the classroom: Teacher expectations, teacher feedback and student achievement. Learning and Instruction, 66, Learning and Instruction, April 2020, Vol.66.
Jussim, L., & Harber, K. (2005). Teacher expectations and self-fulfilling prophecies: Knowns and unknowns, resolved and unresolved controversies. Personality and Social Psychology Review : An Official Journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc, 9(2), 131-155.
Riley, T., & Ungerleider, C. (2012). Self-fulfilling Prophecy: How Teachers' Attributions, Expectations, and Stereotypes Influence the Learning Opportunities Afforded Aboriginal Students. Canadian Journal of Education, 35(2), 303-333.
Teacher Expectations; "The Power of the Pygmalion Effect". (2014). 34(08), 5.
Elenco studi per t. expectations and achievement gap:
Mckown, C., & Weinstein, R. (2008). Teacher expectations, classroom context, and the achievement gap. Journal of School Psychology, 46(3), 235-261.
Strand, S. (2012). The White British‐Black Caribbean achievement gap: Tests, tiers and teacher expectations. British Educational Research Journal, 38(1), 75-101.
Gentrup, S., & Rjosk, C. (2018). Pygmalion and the gender gap: Do teacher expectations contribute to differences in achievement between boys and girls at the beginning of schooling? Educational Research and Evaluation: Pygmalion's 50th Anniversary: The State of the Art in Teacher Expectation Research, 24(3-5), 295-323.
Peterson, E., Rubie-Davies, Osborne, & Sibley. (2016). Teachers' explicit expectations and implicit prejudiced attitudes to educational achievement: Relations with student achievement and the ethnic achievement gap. Learning and Instruction, 42, 123-140.
Torff, B. (2011). Teacher Beliefs Shape Learning for All Students. Phi Delta Kappan, 93(3), 21-23.
Blad, E. (2017). Achievement Gaps; "The Power of Teacher Expectations". Education Week,37(11), 4.
Goodwin, A. (2002). The Social/Political Construction of Low Teacher Expectations for Children of Color: Re-Examining the Achievement Gap. Journal of Thought, 37(4), 83-103.
FONTI RICERCA: primo di unipg e google scholar
STRATEGIA DI RICERCA: ho utilizzato i seguenti termini: teacher expectations, learning opportunities, ethnicity, self fulfilling prophecy, achievement gap, classroom context.
Teacher’s implicit racial bias was measured using The Implicit Association Test (IAT).
The IAT is one of the most widely used measures of implicit biases (Oswald, Mitchell, Blanton,
Jaccard & Tetlock, 2013; Richeson, Trawalter & Shelton, 2005; Staats et al., 2016). The IAT
measures automatic associations and it has been employed in numerous studies to assess
automatic evaluations of social groups (see Greenwald, McGhee & Schwartz, 1998 for details).
In an IAT, subjects classify target concepts and attributes using two designated keys on the
TESI CHE SI VUOLE DIMOSTRARE ATTRAVERSO GLI STUDI SELEZIONATI: per l'analisi qualitativa prendo solo gli studi che hanno indagato le cause delle aspettative e come le opportunità di apprendimento sono state influenzate. Solo gli studi che hanno messo in evidenza le differenze di opportunità tra studenti di diverse etnie
PREJUDICE: effective componenet of stereotype. feelings and attitude one holds towards a particular group. When a stereotype is activated and time is pressured a less socially desirable and more automatic response may emerge. Although a teacher might explicitly reject it they may still implicitly show discrimination behavior
TEACHER EXPECTATIONS: inferences teachers make regarding's students' potential to achieve in the classroom.
SELF FULFULLING PROPHECY
TEACHER JUDGEMENT: the way teacher evaluated student record cards in arriving at their recommendations regarding student placement.
STEREOTYPE: belief that member of particolar group have certain attributes or traits
TEACHER EXPECTATIONS BASED ON PARENT'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS
TEACHER EXPECTATIONS AND ACHIEVEMENT GAP FOCUSING ON ETHNIC GAP
TEACHER EXPECTATIONS AND SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY: small effects but large on ethnic minority students. Elenco di tutti i fattori che influenzano le aspettative dell'insegnante oltre alla razza. Dusek e Joseph (1983) influence by a student's race. Weiner (1985) process of beliefs impact behavior. Clark (1963) society had formed conceptions of different ethnicities
TEACHER EXPECTATIONS AND CLASSROOM CONTEXT AND SOCIAL CLASS: Lane, K., Givner, C., & Pierson, M. (2004). Teacher Expectations of Student Behavior: Social Skills Necessary for Success in Elementary School Classrooms. Journal of Special Education, 38(2), 104-110.
How teachers form conception: initially through stereotypes of students and over time through behaviors of students
Maintenance theory and predictive validity
Social identity contingencies (Steele, 2010) circostanze che gli individui devono affrontare a causa della loro identità sociale + Rist (1970) gli insegnanti formano concezioni inizialmente basate sulle apparenze + decision on student based on social cues such as who are the student's parent (FACTORS BEYOND ACADEMIC ABILITY)