THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM (ANATOMY OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM…
THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
THE MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
FOR MALES: To produce, maintain, transport, and nourish sperm (the male reproductive cells), and protective fluid ( semen )
To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract
FOR FEMALES: producing female gametes called eggs, secreting female sex hormones (such as estrogen), providing a site for fertilization, gestating a fetus
if fertilization occurs, giving birth to a baby, and breastfeeding a baby after birth.
ANATOMY OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
A structure within the scrotum attached to the backside of the testis
A tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder out of the body; also carries sperm from the vas deferens out of the body
Consists of skin that contains the testes; maintains temperature of the sperm
A tube that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
An oval structure about 5 cm by 3 cm; located in the scrotum; produces sperm and the hormone testosterone
Firm, dense structure about the size of a walnut that is located near the urinary bladder; functions to help the movement of the sperm
Glands in the back of the urinary bladder; its fluid contains sugar and proteins for the sperm
Small, about the size of a pea, located near the base of the penis; secretes a mucus-like fluid that neutralizes the acidity of any urine in the urethra prior to the passage of semen
Mixture of sperm cells and secretions from the accessory glands
Head contains chromosomes; body contains mitochondria; flagellum (tail) propels the cell
Functions to transfer sperm to the vagina and as a means of excretion of urine
HORMONES OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH):
produced in the anterior pituitary. The target organ in the males is the testes and stimulates the development of sperm. The target organ in the female is the ovaries and stimulates the follicle in the ovary.
Luteinizing hormone (LH):
LH is produced in the anterior pituitary. It acts on the interstitial cells in the male to secrete testosterone. In the female, it acts on the ovary and causes ovulation of the egg from the follicle.
this is produced by the follicle cells produced for the egg and acts on the endometrial lining of the uterus. The lining proliferates, becomes thicker and more vascular, enabling it to nourish a fetus. Estrogen also affects the development of secondary sex characteristics.
this is produced in the ovary and targets the uterine lining. It maintains the thickness form the monthly cycle or a pregnancy. Progesterone also affects the development of secondary sex characteristics.
testosterone (male hormone):
this is produced in the interstitial cells between the seminiferous tubules. It targets the adjacent seminiferous tubules and promotes sperm development and secondary sex characteristics.
EVENTS OF THE FEMALE HORMONE CYCLE (3)
LUTEAL:During ovulation, the egg bursts from its follicle, but the ruptured follicle stays on the surface of the ovary. For the next two weeks or so, the follicle transforms into a structure known as the corpus luteum. This structure starts releasing progesterone, along with small amounts of oestrogen. This combination of hormones maintains the thickened lining of the uterus, waiting for a fertilised egg to stick (implant).
If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum withers and dies, usually around day 22 in a 28-day cycle. The drop in progesterone levels causes the lining of the uterus to fall away. This is known as menstruation. The cycle then repeats.
If a fertilised egg implants in the lining of the uterus, it produces the hormones that are necessary to maintain the corpus luteum. This includes human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), the hormone that is detected in a urine test for pregnancy. The corpus luteum keeps producing the raised levels of progesterone that are needed to maintain the thickened lining of the uterus.
Ovulation is the release of a mature egg from the surface of the ovary. This usually occurs mid-cycle, around two weeks or so before menstruation starts.
Within two days, ovulation is triggered by the high levels of LH. The egg is funnelled into the fallopian tube and toward the uterus by waves of small, hair-like projections. The life span of the typical egg is only around 24 hours. Unless it meets a sperm during this time, it will die
When you want to have a baby you can improve your chance of getting pregnant if you know about ovulation and the ‘fertile window’ in the menstrual cycle
During the follicular phase, the developing follicle causes a rise in the level of oestrogen. The hypothalamus in the brain recognises these rising levels and releases a chemical called gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). This hormone prompts the pituitary gland to produce raised levels of luteinising hormone (LH) and FSH
Menstruation is the elimination of the thickened lining of the uterus (endometrium) from the body through the vagina. Menstrual fluid contains blood, cells from the lining of the uterus (endometrial cells) and mucus. The average length of a period is between three days and one week.
The follicular phase starts on the first day of menstruation and ends with ovulation. Prompted by the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). This hormone stimulates the ovary to produce around five to 20 follicles (tiny nodules or cysts), which bead on the surface.
Each follicle houses an immature egg. Usually, only one follicle will mature into an egg, while the others die. This can occur around day 10 of a 28-day cycle. The growth of the follicles stimulates the lining of the uterus to thicken in preparation for possible pregnancy.
DISORDERS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Uterine fibroids: are noncancerous growths of the uterus that often appear during childbearing years
Gynecologic cancer is any cancer that starts in a woman's reproductive organs. Five main types of cancer affect a woman's reproductive organs are cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal and vulvar
ENDOMETRIOSIS: A disorder in which tissue that normally lines the uterus grows outside the uterus
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body's ability to fight infection and disease
Interstitial cystitis: a chronic condition causing bladder pressure, bladder pain and sometimes pelvic pain. The pain ranges from mild discomfort to severe pain.
Polycystic ovary syndrome: A hormonal disorder causing enlarged ovaries with small cysts on the outer edges.
Hepatitis: is an inflammation of the liver. Viruses cause most cases of hepatitis. The type of hepatitis is named for the virus that causes it; for example, hepatitis A, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Drug or alcohol use can also cause hepatitis. In other cases, your body mistakenly attacks healthy cells in the liver
Syphilis: is a bacterial infection usually spread by sexual contact. The disease starts as a painless sore — typically on your genitals, rectum or mouth. Syphilis spreads from person to person via skin or mucous membrane contact with these sores
Chlamydia: common sexually transmitted disease. It is caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis. It can infect both men and women. Women can get chlamydia in the cervix, rectum, or throat
Gonorrhea: A sexually transmitted bacterial infection that, if untreated, may cause infertility. Gonorrhea most often affects the urethra, rectum or throat. In females, gonorrhea can also infect the cervix. Gonorrhea is most commonly spread during vaginal, oral or anal sex
A common sexually transmitted infection marked by genital pain and sores.
Caused by the herpes simplex virus, the disease can affect both men and women.
Pain, itching, and small sores appear first. They form ulcers and scabs. After initial infection, genital herpes lies dormant in the body. Symptoms can recur for years.
Human papillomavirus (HPV): HPV stands for human papillomavirus. It's the most common sexually transmitted infection. HPV is usually harmless and goes away by itself, but some types can lead to cancer or genital warts
ANATOMY OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Labia majora: The labia majora enclose and protect the other external reproductive organs. Literally translated as "large lips," the labia majora are relatively large and fleshy, and are comparable to the scrotum in males. The labia majora contain sweat and oil-secreting glands. After puberty, the labia majora are covered with hair.
Labia minora: Literally translated as "small lips," the labia minora can be very small or up to 2 inches wide. They lie just inside the labia majora, and surround the openings to the vagina (the canal that joins the lower part of the uterus to the outside of the body) and urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body).
Bartholin's glands: These glands are located beside the vaginal opening and produce a fluid (mucus) secretion.
Clitoris: The two labia minora meet at the clitoris, a small, sensitive protrusion that is comparable to the penis in males. The clitoris is covered by a fold of skin, called the prepuce, which is similar to the foreskin at the end of the penis. Like the penis, the clitoris is very sensitive to stimulation and can become erect.
Vagina: The vagina is a canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal.
Uterus (womb): The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ that is the home to a developing fetus. The uterus is divided into two parts: the cervix, which is the lower part that opens into the vagina, and the main body of the uterus, called the corpus. The corpus can easily expand to hold a developing baby. A channel through the cervix allows sperm to enter and menstrual blood to exit.
Ovaries: The ovaries are small, oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones.
Fallopian tubes: These are narrow tubes that are attached to the upper part of the uterus and serve as tunnels for the ova (egg cells) to travel from the ovaries to the uterus. Conception, the fertilization of an egg by a sperm, normally occurs in the fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where it implants into the lining of the uterine wall.
MAMMARY GLANDS: a gland located in the breasts of females that is responsible for lactation, or the production of milk. Both males and females have glandular tissue within the breasts; however, in females the glandular tissue begins to develop after puberty in response to estrogen release