Syntax is the part of grammar that represents the knowledge of spof…
Syntax is the part of grammar that represents the knowledge of spof sentences and their structure.eaker
Phrase categories. NP, VP, PP, AP, AdvP.
Lexical categories: noun, verb, preposition, adjetive, adverb.
Functional categories: auxiliary verb, modals and determinator
A syntactic categories is a family of expression that can subtitute for one another without loss of frammaticality.
The grammar will generate all the well formed syntactic structure.
The grammar will have a finite number of rules but will genereate infinite number of well formed structure.
Genrative grammar defines the syntatcic structures of a language.
WHAT THE SYNTAX RULES DO
They also describe the relationships between the meaning of a group of words and the arrangement of the woirds.
The rules of syntax also specify the grammatical relations of a sentence.
they also specify the correct word order for a language
Syntax rules specify constraints (imitatins or restrictions) on sentences based on the verb.
The rules of syntax combine words into phrases and phrases into sentences
WHAT GRAMMATICALITY IS NOT BASED ON
This sentences may be new for us but our syntactic knowledge klet us know that it is grammatical
Grammaticality is not baesd on meanigfulnes, grammaticality is not baesd on truthfulness
GENERATIVE GRAMMAR refers to a particular approach to the study of syntax
It is a set of rules used to generate or define the membership of grammatical sentences
PHRASE STRUCTURE TREES AND RULES
Phrase struture rules specify the well formed informationof a sentence.
S_NP VP 2. NP_DetN
VP_ V NP 4. VP_V
V PP 6. PP
V CCP 7. CP
Phrase structure tree is a tree diagram with syntactic categfories information.
Tree diagram. is a visual p;resentation of the constituents of the corresponding expression.
Tree diagram is a way of representing the hierarchicalnature of structurein a graphical form.
CONTITUENTS AND CONSTITUENCY TESTS
Stand alone test. If agroup of words can stand alone, they form a constituent. What? when?" Where?.
Replacement. Constituents can be replaced by the same kind of constituents like NP- NP.
Moved as unit. If a group of words can be moved together, they are a constituents (passive).
We could say that the sentence " The child found the puppy" is based on the template Det-N-Det-N.
The sentences can actually be separated into several group.
A tree diagram can be used to show the hirachy of the sentences.
HEADS AND COMPLEMENTS
Head: a nuon heads S a NP, A verb heads a VP
Complement. every phrase has a head. It can be PVV, NP, or juast a verb.
Phrasev structure tree also how the relationship among the elements