The six articles of belief (sunni) - Coggle Diagram
The six articles of belief (sunni)
The belief in
- 'the absolute unity of God'
- above and beyond the material world - not visible
'No vision can grasp him, but his grasp is above all vision'
- involved in His creation/the world.
'closer to man than his jugular vein'
surah 50:16 - jugular vein being His life line
- 'association' and the worst sin a Muslim can commit is associate other beings with God.
In Muslims homes there are no pictures of the Prophet and some very strict Muslims do not allow photographs
M. Cook says
'God has no partners in his divinity'
God is the
- He made the world.
'Recite in the name of thy Lord, who created man'
Go is the
Cherisher and Sustainer
- God is constantly involved with his creation as provider. Islam teaches that everything is dependent upon Allah's creative power
Merciful and a Guide
- He has chosen to guide humans through his revelations, messengers and prophets (Risalah). The ultimate book of guidance is the Qur'an
- all powerful and is in control of everything that happens
- all knowing
- has no beginning or end
God is a
- on the Day of Judgement (Akhirah), Muslims will be judged by Allah if they will go to al-Jannah (heaven) or Jahannam (hell)
The Qur'an contains several verses which use the
argument (teleological argument) to show the power and creativity of God i.e. the world is so intricate and organised that it must have a Designer God
Allah created human beings to be his deputy on earth. As deputies or
, human beings have a responsibility to submit to the will of Allah and live a life that is pleasing to Him
This oneness is reflected in the concept of the
. One God, One Creation, One Ummah
Angels are God's messengers who are able to communicate with humankind
They serve and worship Allah.
Angels do not have free-will. They are created by Allah so that they can serve and worship Him
Angels are also without sex and made of light (nur). They are incorporeal (without a physical body) but they can become visible
refers to Angels in Islam as mirrors that reflect the divine essence, enabling people to have a glimpse of this reflection and know God
The eternal place of angels is heaven where they are constantly praising Allah until required to perform a mission for Allah e.g. where Muhammad received the Qur'an
'Angels are there not because God needs them, but because we need them'
One of the most essential beliefs for Muslims. Islam teaches that angels surround and look after humans, having a guardianship role.
At the end of formal prayers [salah prayers], Muslims turn to the right and the left and bless their two angels as they hover near their shoulders.
'He sends forth guardians to [to watch] over over'
Muslims also believe that angels play a part in Akhirah, presenting the book of deeds. Rakeeb and Atheed record the good and bad deeds of every person. Every person has these two special angels or guardians who keep a record of their good or bad deeds
There is no hierarchy of angels
They are the explanation of good and evil. The Devil [Iblis or Shaytan] was technically a jinn - not an angel - who refused to bow down to Adam and was thrown out of heaven because the jinns are made of fire rather than light they can disobey God. Iblis begged God to put off his punishment and God agreed to do so until the Last Day. This is why Iblis is able to tempt humans to go against God
- significant in the revelation of the Qur'an
- the Angel of Death who is present at deathbeds to receive souls, taking them to Barzakh
- controls the thunder and lightening and brings rewards to good people during their lifetime
- announce the Day of Judgement by blowing a horn
- responsible for Hell
- responsible for paradise
Munkar and Nakeer
- question the good and bad deeds of a person while they are in the grave
Muslims believe that Allah not only sent prophets to his vice-regents (khalifahs), but
(scrolls of Abraham) were given to
(Torah) was given to
(Psalms) were given to
(Gospels) were given to
- First human, prophet, Muslim and caliph; tempted by the devil to disobey God and removed from paradise to earth
- Remained loyal to Allah despite being tested; called a Hanif, a 'Resolute One'; built the Ka'aba
- Helped his father to build the Ka'aba and agreed to be sacrificed; Allah caused the Zamzam well to appear by his foot
- Allah gave him his message directly (Kalimullah); helped free the Jews from slavery; called a 'Resolute One'
- Given the gift to create melody to sing Allah's praises; a king who killed Goliath and made armour for his army
- He is not the Son of God or part of the Trinity; he was not crucified but saved by Allah; known as a 'Resolute One' and Messiah
- Known as the 'seal of the Prophets' because he is the last messenger and also a 'Resolute One'; a prophet for all people
Involves belief in the Day of Judgement and life after death
It is concerned with eschatology, 'last things'
Muslims believe that life is a 'preparation' or 'test' for the next
All deeds are recorded
Humans are Allah's stewards and have to follow the 'straight path'. How well they follow the 'straight path' will determine how they are judged in the afterlife
Muslims believe that human beings have free-will and are responsible for their own salvation
Muslims believe that those who die before the Day of Judgement, the angel Izra'il takes their souls to Barzakh, a state of waiting
Muslims believe that the end of the world will come at a fixed point in the future for all Muslims
Muslims believe that the Day of Judgement (Yawmuddin) happens at the end of the world
At a time of Allah's choosing, the dead will be resurrected to life and each person will be judged by Allah
Allah is a judge. His judgement on the Day of Judgement will display perfect justice
Muslims are judged on a combination of deeds and faith (iman). Muslims have to believe that, 'there is no true God but God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God' - Shahadah
Muslims will stand naked before God and is handed the Book of Deeds. Those faithful Muslims whose good deeds outweigh their bad deeds will go to heaven and those whose bad deeds outweigh the good deeds will go to hell
Both heaven and hell are described as physical places. The Qur'an indicates that Allah will re-create the decayed body
Al-Qadr means that everything in the universe follows a divine master plan or is pre-destined by Allah. Allah is responsible for even the minutest detail of human life and He knows the destiny of each human being
Allah has the power to do anything he wishes
Al-Qadr is closely connected with belief in Tawhid. Allah is the sole designer, creator and sustainer of the universe. As a result of this Allah rules and controls everything, including having the final authority of history and destiny
Muslims believe that all humans are given an instinct (called nafs) which can be an influence for good or evil. Every human being has free will and can choose what they do in life. Human beings are not puppets r robots controlled by God
There is tension between Al-Qadr and free will. If God knows in advance everything a person might do, how can Muslims believe they have freedom of choice and free will? If God has a master plan for the universe and is all powerful, does that mean that God is responsible for evil?
The Qadariyya were eighth century Muslim scholars who gainedtheir name from their views about Al Qadr. They argued that if God is going to judge human beings on the Day of Judgement on the basis of their actions, it must follow that they have free will. No law court would judge and punish someone if they were not responsible for their actions
The Qadariyya greatly influenced the Mu'tazilites, another group of eighth century theologians. They said that God created His vice regents with free will and it is therefore up to humans what happens in this world. They took this to its logical conclusion and denied Al Qadr
The more orthodox eighth century theologian al' Ashari developed an idea that combined free will and Al Qadr. God knows what people will do before they do it, but it is up to their own free will to decide whether to do what God wants or not. God has the equality of foreknowledge (sifat) - he knows what people will do, but they do it of their own free will