Psychological Assessment Chap 1,2,6,7 (Definition and scope of assessment…
Psychological Assessment Chap 1,2,6,7
Definition and scope of assessment Chap 1
Tools make it possible for us t assess. Tests, measures, scales and techniques are all referred to as tools used in assessments.
Psychometrics is the sub-field of psychology. It is a science of measuring mental capacities and processes.
Psychological assessment is a process activity aimed at gathering a wide array of information by using psychological assessment measures (tests) an information from sources (interviews, persons history, etc.)
Characteristics of assessment measures
Domains of functioning: Intellectual ability, personality, organisational climate.
Assessments are measures are administered under carefully controlled (standardized) condition.
Procedures used: Psychological, occupational and educational assessments.
Systematic methods are applied
Guidelines are provided to interpret results.
Assessment measures should be supported by evidence
Assessment measure usually developed in a certain context (society or culture)
Assessment process chap 2
The assessment process is multidimensional in nature
Multidimensional information gathering
Multiple measures: Different types of assessments such as norm-based, criterion referenced tests, interviews, behavioural observation, rating scales completed by teachers or supervisors
Multiple domains: attention, motor, cognitive, language, non verbal, personality-related functioning, interests, scholastic achievements, job performance.
Multiple sources: professionals, teachers, parents, extended family members and employers.
Multiple settings: home, school, work as well as one on one etc
Multiple occasions: Assessments need to take place over a period of time and more than one assessment to ensure validity and reliability
For culturally appropriate assessments to be conducted in SA and Africa, a fusion of African-centered and Western-orientated approaches are needed.
Factors shaping development in RSA
the focus on standardising measures of whites only
the misuse of measures by administering measures standardised for one group to another group without investigating if measures are biased and inappropriate for another group.
the misuse of test results to reach conclusion about differences between groups without considering impacts of inter alia cultural, socio-economic, environmental, and educational factors on test performance.
The early use of assessment measures in industry:
the development of measures in response to societal needs.
people who were unfamiliar with concepts had to be familiarized with concepts before they are assessed.
-the use of overseas measures/norms without investigating if the should be adapted/revised for use in SA.
Psychological assessment in democratic SA
-Psychological testing and other similar forms or assessments of an employee are prohibited unless tests or assessment being used is a)been scientifically shown to be valid and reliable; b) can be applied fairly to all employees; c) is not biased against any employee or group.
The development of psychological assessment from the 1960s onwards:
impact of apartheid political dispensation on the development and fair use of measures/tests.
the need to empirically investigate test bias.
growing scepticism regarding the value of psychological measures, especially for black South Africans
South Africa has/currently been shaped by:
-the need for appropriate measures to be developed that is used fairly and unbiased.
-test development appropriate for our multicultural context
-assessment practitioners to take personal responsibility for ethical test use.
training and professional practice guidelines provided by professional board for psychology and other bodies (PsySSA, SIOPSA)
Developing a psychological measure Chap 6
Steps in developing a measure:
Phase 1- Planning (establish a test development team; Specify the aim, target population, nature of measure; Define the content of the measure; Consider other tests specifications to include in the plan)
Phase 2- Item development ( Develop or source the items; Review the items)
Phase 3- Assembling and pre-testing the experimental version of the measure (Arrange the items; finalise the length; Answer the mechanisms and protocols; Develop administration instructions; Pre-test the experimental version of the measure.
Phase 4- Item analysis (Determine item difficulty values; Determine item discrimination values; Investigate item bias; Identify items for final pool)
Phase 5- Revising and standardizing the final version of the measure ( Revise test and item content; Select the items for the standardisation version; Revise and standardise administration and scoring procedures; compile the final version; Administer the final version to a representative sample of target population.
Phase 6- Technical evaluation and establishing norms ( Establish validity and reliability; Devise norm tables, setting performance standards or cut-points)
Phase 7- Publishing and ongoing refinement (Compile the test manual; Submit the measure for classification; Publish and market the measure; Revise, refine and update continuously.
Evaluating a measure:
how long ago was the measure developed.
-The quality and appeal of the test materials.
-The quality of the manual contents and purpose
-The clarity of test instructions
The cultural appropriateness
Bias investigations provide evidence that performance of various groups on the measure is equivalent
-The adequacy of the psychometric properties that have been established.
The nature of the norm groups and the recency of the norms.
Cross- Cultural test adaptation, translation and tests in multiple language chap 7
Reasons for adapting measures:
To enhance fairness
To reduce costs and save tine
To facilitate comparative studies
Concept driven (changes to content to cultural specific)
Theory driven (different language used)
Terminological/factual driven ( accommodate characteristics that differ in each country)
Norm driven (cultural norms and values to be accommodated)
linguistics driven (language differences be accommodated)
Pragmatic driven (accommodate culture-specific conventions)
Familiarity/recognisability driven (cultural differences within family)
Format driven (appropriateness of item formats or response types differ across cultures)
Challenges related to test adaptation in SA:
There is not an equivalent term for a concept in the target language.
Idiomatic expressions cannot be translated literally
The use of the negative form often confuses test-takers (eg I don`t let myself get depressed)
Steps for maximizing success in test adaptations
Review equivalence in languages and cultural interests.
Choose a multidisciplinary team.
-Plan all aspects that require adaptations.
Adapt the instrument using appropriate approaches and methods.
Review adapted version and make necessary changes.
-Conduct a small tryout and use info gained to guide further changes.
Administer the changes, adapt version to large sample of test-takers from target population.
place scores of both the adapted the original measure on a common scale.
Conduct validation investigation.
Establish the psychometric properties of the adapted version.
Generate the norms or set the performance standards or cut-scores.
-Document the process and prepare the manual for test users.
Submit the adapted version to the Psychometrics Committee of the Professional Board for Psychology for classification
Multicultural test development
: There are 2 main approaches. 1) successive approach, 2) simultaneous multicultural approach.
Developed for a monocultural/monoligual context.
it can be adapted in other cultural/language groups.
adapts widely used international measure for SA context.
A drawback is the constructs measured in original and adapted version might not be equivalent. and might not be relevant or appropriate for cultural group.
Simultaneous multicultural approach
used in multiple cultures and languages.
A multicultural and multidisciplinary panel or committee of experts is assembled.