International migration (2.explaining International Migration (voluntary…
3.impacts of migration on destination countries
positive impacts on destination countries
Boost to the local economy.
Government tax revenues increase.
Skills gaps are filled.
Public services can benefit from an influx of qualified staff e.g. doctors and nurses.
Increased cultural diversity.
mmigrant groups can increase birth rates.
Workers who will work for low wages and are prepared to do jobs that local people do not want.
negative impacts on destination countries
Increased pressure on natural resources
Racial tensions and discrimination
Increased levels of pollution
Local people can miss out on jobs due to increased competition from migrants.
Language and cultural barriers can exist
Migrant groups may not assimilate into local communities.
Gender imbalance – usually more men migrate.
Pressure on public services such as schools, housing and healthcare
2.explaining International Migration
voluntary migration done as an example
migrating from a less to a more developed country, looking for better work conditions
some migrants send money to their origin country
ex: 12% of Bangladesh's income
to rejoin a family member that has already migrated
to study abroad
a lot of universities offer exchange programs between different countries
forced migration and refugees
10% of the IM are running away from a war or a bad treatment
ex: more than 6M of Syrian left their country because of the war that has been happening there since 2011
leaded to the big migration crisis of 2015
some organisations are helping refugees, making sure that they get accepted in the country they try to migrate to
because of climate change, the number of climatic refugee is getting higher.
they are threatened by desertification, floods, earthquakes or forest fires.
by 2050, there might be more than 250 M of climatic migrants
most of them would be migrating inside their country of origin
1.describing International Migration
260M of international migrants
( on a total pop of 7,7 MM > minority)
international for living in another country than their country of birth
migrants for being in this country for a long period of time - different from tourism
where international Migrants are mostly from
35% are from south migrating in north
20% are from north migrating to a northern country
5% are from north migrating to south
40% are from the south going to a southern country
the main connected continents are Europe and Africa, as most of the migrants of Europe are from there
a migration system is a structure that connects and explains migration through factors
what are the conditions of the migrant ( job, family...etc...)
2nd factor: what is the migrant looking for (a new job, a better place to live ...etc...)
different migration policies
since 2000, the European Union reinforced the control of its borders (ground and sea)
some countries of the schengen space put control on the inside borders
impacts of migration on origin countries
positive impacts on origin countries
When migrants return, they bring new skills and knowledge
There is less pressure on services such as education and healthcare
Less pressure on natural resources including food and water.
Money is often sent back to family and friends (known as remittances), boosting the local economy.
Unemployment can reduce as there is less competition for jobs.
negative impacts on origin countries
Brain drain could have a negative impact on economic development.
Families separated by borders
Fewer skilled migrants, as those with skills and education, tend to be the people who migrate. This is also known as brain-drain.
There are often gender imbalances, as it is often males who move
There are fewer people to pay tax, so it could increase.