ANARCHISM: Utopianism and natural order (U6Z) ( (Utopia OS JP, WU, How…
Utopianism and natural order (U6Z)
Utopia OS JP, WU
How did Godwin set out his case that the state was unnecessary Godwin didn’t agree with the state of nature theory and thought that humans were rational. human nature was harmonious and peaceful contrasting with ideas of conflict in Locke's social contract. the state was source of problems for humanity and corrupts the otherwise good human nature. we are gregarious and have universal moral truths.
In what way did Rousseau's famous quote echo the anarchist view of human nature
He said ‘man was born free but everywhere he is in chains’. This shows anarchists believe that they are not truly free as long as there is government
They believe in the potential goodness of humankind. They believe that social harmony and order simply arise naturally. E.g. collectivist anarchists stressed the human capacity for sociable and cooperative behaviour whilst individualist anarchists highlight enlightened human reason. They regard human nature as plastic in that is shaped by the society in which they live.
They argue that the belief in a stable and peaceful stateless society is the weakest and most contentious part of anarchist theory. Opponents argue that negative impulses are basic to human nature and not mere evidence of corruption and that the idea of natural order is delusion.
Utopia for an anarchist would be a society, probably collectivist, without a state and everyone being cooperative and uncorrupted. A utopia literally means an ideal or perfect society. Utopian theories are usually based on assumptions about the unlimited possibilities of human self-development. Utopianism is a style of political theorising that develops a critique of the existing order by constructing a model of an ideal or perfect alternative.
Godwin reversed the social contract theory. He said that natural human nature was harmonious and peaceful contrasting with ideas of conflict in locke's social contract. He also criticised the idea that the state protected from the greed of man saying that the state was the source of problems in humanity, corrupting naturally good human nature.
Rousseau opened his book “Social Contract” with the phrase, “Man was born free, yet everywhere he is in chains.” This resonates with the anarchist view that it is the state and government that are the cause of problems while man is naturally good and able to live in a utopian state of natural goodness. This reflects man’s natural positive human nature only corrupted and diminished by the state.
Optimism in human nature leads anarchists to believe in a natural order of peace and social harmony where individuals live either in freedom or mutual cooperation. This view suggests that a state is unnecessary as humanity is perfectly capable of living harmoniously with no state. This view links to religions like Buddhism and Taoism.
4.The belief in a stable, peaceful and natural society is often criticized. Opponents argue that if, as anarchists partially acknowledge, human nature is corruptible that human nature is partially selfish and so a natural stability is not possible. Even within anarchism there is dispute about utopia with collectivists being the staunchest supporters with individualists less firm and anarcho-capitalists rejecting the idea completely.
They propose an ideal society where because human nature is good, society is peaceful, equal and people can live in harmony.
Utopia this is where you type
He wanted to turn the Social Contract theory on its head. The SCT means that without a state there will be an order less society. Godwin suggested human beings are rational creatures and live in accordance with moral laws. He thus believed people have a natural propensity to organise their own lives in a peaceful fashion. Government is therefore not the solution to the problem of order but it is the cause.
In what way did Rousseau's famous quote echo the anarchist view of human nature. "man was born free, yet everywhere he is in chains", echos the anarchist view that humans are naturally good but is held back by the corruption of the state, "yet everywhere he is in chains".
their optimistic views of human nature, being that people are naturally sociable and altruistic, preferring to work cooperatively rather than competing with one another.
How could you sum up the anarchist meaning of utopia? - Without state or central government, but a society where people live alongside one another, without being corrupted and without having power one another.
How do opponents criticise these views? Opponents believe that negative impulses and corruption are part of human nature and so the idea of natural harmony or social order is a delusion to anarchists who believe in Utopianism - on the collectivist side of anarchism. This is why individualist anarcho-capitalists reject Utopia, instead subscribing to the market as creating social harmony.
How did Godwin set out his case that the state was uneccessary.