TOPIC 48: EL ROMANTICISMO EN GRAN BRETAÑA. NOVELA Y POESIA ( ROMANTIC…
TOPIC 48: EL ROMANTICISMO EN GRAN BRETAÑA. NOVELA Y POESIA
ROMANTICISM IN BRITAIN
Romanticism in Britain --> 40 years (French Revolution - Reform Act).
Romantic writers appealed ideas from Revolution & wanted to carry out a literary revolution. They believed literature should be renewed and new themes and forms should be introduced.
Main themes in Romanticism:
--> movement against convention and tyranny
--> children represent purity and innocence. Many writers recalled in their writings memories from childhood.
--> nature was a way to express their personal emotions and feelings.
--> common elements such as dark castles, ghosts, mansions, secret passages appear in a number of works.
-Attraction for the exotic
--> many Romantic writers appealed the past such as Ancient Greece and Medieval times.
We distinguish 2 types of narrative fiction in Romanticism: The Gothic Novel & The Novel of Purpose.
The Gothic Novel
--> common elements such as mansions, ghosts, secret passages in which a beautiful maiden is persecuted by a villain. Many gothic novels are set in Ancient times.
The Novel of Purpose
--> combine the elements of gothic novel with spreading social and political ideas. One of best examples is Mary Shelley's 'Frankenstein'.
3.2. SIR WALTER SCOTT
Scottish writer, novelist, poet, historian, essayist, biographer and inventor of the historic novel.
-Contemporary with Jane Austen but their works are completely opposed.
His characters belong to low and middle classes and some are taken from the Scottish life, they speak the language of Aristocracy and Scottish speech.
He wrote Historic novels & Waverly Novels.
--> 'Ivanhoe', 'Quentin Durward', 'The Talisman'
or historic novels set in Scotland --> 'The Bride of Lammermoor', 'Guy Mannering'
3.1. JANE AUSTEN
1 of greatest Romantic novelists in Britain
Recalls memories from her childhood in the countryside
Created 'The Novel of Manners' --> about the life of ordinary people in ordinary situations & values of men and women.
She wasn't married but --> her treatment of marriage in her novels (only concern for most ladies from that period)
She wrote 6 novels about love and disappointment:
Sense and Sensibility --> about two sisters with opposing ideas
Pride and Prejudice --> about the clash between Elizabeth (daughter of a country man) & Mr. Darcy (a rich landowner).
Emma --> another novel about marriage
Mansfield Park --> + serious novel dealing with religion
Northanger Abbey & Persuasion
4.1. EARLY ROMANTIC POETRY
4.1.1. WILLIAM BLAKE
Greatest & earliest Romantic poet
where showed interest in
Created a new method of engraving illustrations -->
experimented new forms & styles
First book poems
, represents his first experiments with new forms and styles.
'Songs of Innocence'
--> his most remarkable masterpiece of illuminated printing
'Songs of Innocence and Experience'
, a new version
2 prophetic books
Europe. A Prophecy'
'America. A Prophecy'
2 major epics
4.1.2. THE LAKE POETS
The Lake Poets are a group of Romantic poets who for a time lived in close association in the Lake District in England. The beauty of this idyllic place inspired their best works.
220.127.116.11. WILLIAM WORDSWORTH
Lived in France during French Revolution which would inspire some of his poems.
' --> + important work, collection of shirt poems written by Wordsworth & Coleridge.
--> 1 long autobiographical poem. Depicts his childhood in France during French Revolution, visits to France & London.
Middle period wrote odes & sonnets about the beauty of Lake District.
Last years to revise earlier poems
18.104.22.168. SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE
Had an unhappy life and marriage --> suffered from rheumatism & anxiety, was addicted to opium.
Combination of imagination, emotion & thought were essential elements in literature.
--> + important work written by Wordsworth & Coleridge, it contains one of his + famous poems '
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner'.
Also wrote other poems such as
(composed after an opium induced dream)
4.2. LATE ROMANTIC POETRY
Late Romantic poets are a younger generation of Romantic poets, they were inspired by Wordsworth and Coleridge. Late Romantic poets had an arrogant attitude towards life and showed disagreement with society from that period
4.2.1. JOHN KEATS
Truth and happiness were the only source of beauty
1st book of poems -->
(wrote influenced by Shakespeare & Milton)
--> 1st long poem.
for Keats' endless search for beauty and happiness.
Brother diagnosed with
& he started to have same symptons --> from this moment he wrote his
'La Belle Dame Sans Merci'
(a lady who suffers from tuberculosis),
--> Keats' best work. He wrote
'To Psyche', To Autumn', 'To a Nightingale'
4.2.2. PERCY BYSSHE SHELLY
Born in a wealthy family, studied at Eton & Oxford.
His poems he includes all his
political & social ideas
after leaving previous wife 3 years after marriage.
1st long poem -->
'Alastor or the Spirit of Solitude'
Also wrote -->
'To A Skylark', 'To The West Wind', 'The Cloud'.
Elegy on Keats' death
, who died in a boating accident during a storm
4.2.3. LORD BYRON
Influenced by classical form of
Travelled around Europe to collect ideas for his poems, back in England he entered the
House of Lords
'English Bards and Scotch Reviewers',
poem against all the major contemporary writers.
1 + famous poems --> '
about a man who visits Europe and tells what he saw there.
Created the figure of the
which appears in many of his poems.
Wife left him and he wrote 2 poems against her called '
Poems on his Domestic Circumstances'
, 1 dedicated to her lover & 1 is a farewell to his wife.
Rumours of incest
started to arise, left England & moved to
. There he left literature and
devoted to politics.
Organized an expedition to help in the
where he died at 36.