Biology Ch 10 (Photosynthesis (Photosystem (Photosystem II (Is the first…
Biology Ch 10
What is it?
The process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct.
The photosynthesis equation is as follows: 6CO2 + 6H20 + (energy) → C6H12O6 + 6O2 Carbon dioxide + water + energy from light produces glucose and oxygen.
To perform photosynthesis, plants need three things: carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight. for photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide enters through tiny holes in a plant's leaves, flowers, branches, stems, and roots.
These organisms use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water. They feed themselves and the entire living world.
They take in carbon dioxide, a byproduct of respiration in heterotrophs.
Photosynthetic organisms, also known as photoautotrophs, are organisms that are capable of photosynthesis. Some of these organisms include higher plants, some protists (algae and euglena), and bacteria.
Obtain organic material by the second major mode of nutrition. They are unable to make their own food. They live on compounds produced by other organisms.
Carnivores eat the meat of other animals.
Herbivores eat plants.
Omnivores can eat both meat and plants.
Scavengers eat things left behind by carnivores and herbivores. ...
Decomposers break down dead organisms into soil.
The structure within the cells of plants and green algae that is the site of photosynthesis
They are found in the cells of mesophyll, which is the tissue in the interior of the leaf.
A chloroplast has two membranes surrounding a dense fluid called the stroma. A stroma is a supprting tissue
A biochemical mechanism in plants by which chlorophyll absorbs light energy for photosynthesis.
Is composed of a reaction center complex surrounded be several light-harvesting complexes organized association of proteins holding a special pairs of chlorophyll.
Is the first protein complex in the light-dependent reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis.
It is located in the thylakoid membrane of plants, algae, and cyanobacteria.
They both have a characteristic reaction-center complex a particular kind of primary electron acceptor next to a special of chlorophyll.
The Calvin Cycle
In photosynthesis it converts light energy into chemical energy. Photosynthesis reduces the carbon in carbon dioxide from OSC = +4 to OSC = +1 in the terminal carbon in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, the feedstock for simple sugars, amino acids, and lipids.
The initial incorporation of carbon into organic compounds.
The process in plants and algae by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted into organic carbon compounds, such as carbohydrates, by photosynthesis.
The Calvin cycle is the term used for the reactions of photosynthesis that use the energy stored by the light-dependent reactions to form glucose and other carbohydrate molecules.
The primary function of the Calvin cycle is to make organic products that plants need using the products from the light reactions of photosynthesis (ATP and NADPH).
A process that involves rearrangement of the molecular or ionic structure of a substance, as opposed to a change in physical form or a nuclear reaction.
The light-dependent reactions use light energy to make two molecules needed for the next stage of photosynthesis
The energy storage molecule ATP and the reduced electron carrier NADPH. In plants, the light reactions take place in the thylakoid membranes of organelles called chloroplasts.
In photosynthesis energy is transferred to ATP in the light-dependent stage and the ATP is utilised during synthesis in the light-independent stage.
The step that coverts solar energy to chemical energy by water splitting, providing a source of electrons and protons and giving off O2 as a by-product.
Light reactions use solar energy to reduce NADP+ to NADPH by adding a pair of electrons along with an H+.
NADPH is a product of the first stage of photosynthesis and is used to help fuel the reactions that take place in the second stage of photosynthesis. Plant cells need light energy, water and carbon dioxide to carry out the steps of photosynthesis.
NADPH stands for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen.
NADP+ is a coenzyme that functions as a universal electron carrier, accepting electrons and hydrogen atoms to form NADPH, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate.
Light absorbed by chlorophyll drives a transfer of the electron and hydrogen ions from water to an acceptor called NADP+.
Takes place in the thylakoid membrane, use light energy to make ATP and NADPH.
Suspended within the stroma is a third membrane system made up of sacs called thylakoids
A sheet-like membrane-bound structure that is the site of the light-dependent photosynthesis reactions in chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. It is the site that contains the chlorophyll used to absorb light and use it for biochemical reactions.
Elements and compounds in photosynthesis
Types of elements
A nonmetal which has two main forms (diamond and graphite)
A raw material for photosynthesis. On the land, plants get the carbon they need as a gas from the air. Water and carbon dioxide are converted, using the sun's energy, into simple sugars.
A colorless, odorless, highly flammable gas
Hydrogen is used by plants which combine it with carbon during the photosynthesis process and release oxygen into the atmosphere which is used by all living beings.
A colorless, odorless reactive gas, the life-supporting component of the air.
The oxygen so released is used in the respiration process to break down complex molecules (generated in photosynthesis) and releases energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) molecules.
A simple sugar which is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates.
Glucose is used by plants for energy and to make other substances like cellulose and starch.
Types of compounds
A colorless, odorless gas produced by burning carbon and organic compounds and by respiration. It is naturally present in air (about 0.03 percent).
Photosynthesis separates carbon dioxide and water — known as CO2 and H2O, respectively — into their individual molecules and combines them into new products. Once the process is done, the plant releases Oxygen, or O2, into the surrounding air.
A green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria,
It is responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis.It gives leafs their color, resides in the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast. Its molecule contains a magnesium atom held in a porphyrin ring.