1700: Historical and Social Context (Industrial Revolution (England pass…
1700: Historical and Social Contex
The power had been limited in favour of Parliament, that is shared in two faction:
(supported by the emerging middle classes)
(supported by aristocracy and church).
The Cabinet (Council of Top Minister) was represented by the
Sir Robert Walpole
, he managed to keep England out of foreign conflicts and was in power for 20 years.
War of Spanish Succession
This war broke out to prevent that all Spanish possessions, after the death of Charles II of Spain, went to France. England enter in the war in 1702 and thiewar ended in
Treaty of Utrecht
: with it England obtein significant commercial and colonial gain and also the
With the asiento (monopoly of slave trade) England became the leader of the
Britain, Africa, America
South Sea Bubble Crisis
: Companyhad received a monopoly of the slave trade and offered promising prospec; Speculators were encouraged to invest but when the price of shares fell the bubble burst. It was a political scandal beacuse many politicians had sold their shares at a good profit before the price fell.
, a far seeing politician, understood that in a merchantilist age the wealth came from trade, and a trading empire was based on control of world trade.
Seven Years War
Treaty of Parish
sees allies Britain and Prussia against France, Russia, Austria and Spain. With this war Englan had the oppurtunity to enlarge its colonial possession and in fact estabilished the supremacy in Nord America and India, won in this way the title of European champion of commercial expansion.
Under the government of Mary II and William III in 1707, with the
Act of Union
Scotland was united to England. This unification hadn't been accepted by all Scottish and so in 1745 broke out
a ribellion that claimed indipendence of Scotland but the final defeated of Scotland was at Culloden.
England pass from a
large scale industries
Migration of population from rural areas to city, led the formation of a
(proletariat) that the most of the time live in bad conditions (bath society).
Mechanization of work and life.
(working-class neighborhoods) and alcoholism.
Due to an improvement of hygiene, living onditions, creation of hospital and decrease of infan mortality.
18th societ offered few chances to woman for express themselves in fact they were often dominated by childbirth and prostitution and the only way of salvation was marriage.
During this century acquired new values, for example children weren't more considered "little adult" but people in need of kindness and attention
New religion was found in 1729 by Wesley's brother; This religion stressed respectability and moral dignity.
Creted Sunday Schools where people not only read the Bible but also learn to read and to write.