Climate Change relating to International Relations (How might climate…
Climate Change relating to International Relations
How can countries work together to solve climate change and tackle the consequences that it brings?
Environmental agreements that are signed by many/ if not all countries of the world
CITES: The goal of CITES is to regulate the international trade of selected endangered plants and animals. There are almost 36,000 plants and animals protected by CITES and species are grouped into three levels of protection depending on the degree of regulation required.
March 3, 1973
CBD: The goal of the CBD is to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, with a focus on a shared system of costs and benefits among countries. It covers all ecosystems and species. This convention includes the Cartagena and Nagoya Protocols entered into force in 2003 and 2014, respectively.
June 5, 1992
Kyoto Protocol: The Kyoto Protocol supplements the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to limit greenhouse gas emissions. The protocol gives countries specific targets to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases. Thirty-seven countries and the EU participated in the first commitment period until 2012. The Doha Amendment is the second period and ends in 2020.
December 11, 1997
The Montreal Protocol, of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, phases out production and use of ozone-depleting chemicals to help prevent health threats like skin cancer. The first treaty to achieve universal participation, the Montreal Protocol is largely considered a success. It has helped prevent an additional 280 million cases of skin cancer, according to an EPA report on ozone calculations.
September 16, 1987
Paris Agreement: Part of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Paris Agreement’s goal is to keep this century’s global temperature rise below 2 degrees Celsius. Measures to achieve success include mandatory emissions reporting, a new technology framework, and global stocktaking every five years.
April 22, 2016
World Heritage Convention: The goal of the World Heritage Convention is to identify and preserve potential sites important to cultural and natural heritage. Places selected as World Heritage Sites are protected under international law and can be eligible for international financial assistance. Sites in the United States include Yellowstone National Park, Independence Hall, and the Statue of Liberty.
November 23, 1972
How might climate change affect countries' interactions with each other?
The fight for water and other essential resources
Due to desertification and other severe climate problems the world is facing, many countries are going to see their biomes being harmed and species going extinct as the temperatures go up. The temperatures will also dry up many bodies of water including lakes and rivers, that were essential for the survival of the people inside cities and countries.
Semi-arid and arid areas (such as the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and northeastern Brazil) are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change on water supply.
Water quality is important for ecosystems, human health and sanitation, agriculture, and other purposes. Increases in temperature, changes in precipitation, sea level rise, and extreme events could diminish water quality in many regions.
Without enough water, the land will start to also dry up causing the land to lose its fertility, causing devastating effects on the agriculture sector. Without food, people will not be able to survive, leading to conflict for food.
As climate changes, water is very likely to become scarce at least part of the time in many areas, but more plentiful part of the time in some areas as well - leading to conflicts and unrest.
This will widen the gap in inequalities and the wealth distribution, causing many civil disobedience acts and internal problems
Climate change will cause a decrease in global trade
Without trade, many countries will suffer economically and politically, causing many people to go into poverty and affecting the relationships between countries.
In the Horn of Africa in 2011, a drought-induced famine affected more than 10 million people
In Latin America, climate change is to blame for the rapid expansion of a fungus, which attacks coffee plantations, killing trees
In Africa and Asia, where tourism is a critical source of revenues, particularly for least developed countries, climate change has increased the likelihood of beauty spots such as coral reefs being wrecked, discouraging tourists
In coastal areas around the globe, fish stocks are not only dwindling because of overfishing, but also because of ocean acidification caused by rising sea temperatures
Some climate impacts, such as higher frequency of extreme events or rising sea levels, will have direct impacts on trade as they will affect transport and distribution chains.
The post-2015 development agenda underpinned by the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement bring together the two grand frontiers - climate change and sustainable development.
What are the possible impacts and consequences for humans caused by climate change?
Impacts of climate change on humans:
Increases in temperatures are linked to more frequent and severe heat stress.
Worsened air quality that often accompanies heat waves or wildfires can lead to breathing problems and exacerbate respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.
Climate changes can influence infectious diseases. The spread of meningococcal (epidemic) meningitis is often linked to climate changes, especially drought. Areas of sub-Saharan and West Africa are sensitive to the spread of meningitis, and will be particularly at-risk if droughts become more frequent and severe.
Impacts of climate change on agriculture and other food systems can increase rates of malnutrition and foodborne illnesses.
Changes in precipitation patters and extreme weather events can lead to cascading health impacts, particularly when power, water, or transportation systems are disrupted. Diarrheal diseases from contaminated water and food sources are a major concern, particularly for children.
The effects of global climate change on mental health and well-being are integral parts of the overall climate-related human health impacts. Mental health consequences of climate change range from minimal stress and distress symptoms to clinical disorders, such as anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, and suicidal thoughts.
Causes for climate change:
Gas allows radiation from the sun to enter the greenhouse.However this hear cannot escape through the glass.
As a result the greenhouse becomes warmer than the air outside and is ideal from growing tomatoes and vegetables which need constant warm conditions.
Like a greenhouse, the atmosphere allows most of the heat from the sun (short-wave radiation)to pass straight through it to warm up the Earth's surface.
However when the Earth gives off heat in the form of long-wave radiation, some gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane are able absorb it.
In the same way the glass traps heat inside a greenhouse, the greenhouse effect keeps the Earth warm.
60% of enhanced greenhouse effect.
Without this 'blanketing' effect it would be far too cold for life to exist on Earth.