Causes of Rebellions under Henry Viii (Economic and Social (Taxation (The…
Causes of Rebellions under Henry Viii
The Pilgrimage of Grace was arguably inspired by disaffected pro-Aragonese supporters at court. Catherine of Aragon’s supporters had links with several leading rebels caught up in the rebellion.
Pilgrimage Of Grace
There were complaints against those working for the King, including Thomas Cromwell. They felt these men were of low brith and only supporting the dissolution o the monstrous to gain the wealth of the churches
1525-Suffolk protesters complaining about Wolsey
No dynastic challenge until the 1530s
POG: He alarmed nobles by disinheriting Mary and divorcing her mum
Main demand of the rebels was that Princess Mary should be legitimized
They were concerned that Henry VIII might determine the succession by will and not by parliament as this would cause the throne to go to the King of Scotland
Catholic reaction to Protestant Reform
Pilgrimage of Grace 1536
Catholic reaction to the closure on monasteries and other Protestant reforms
Regional - in 7 northern counties
Two sets of ecclesiastical commissioners travelling through Lincolnshire alarmed local people
First to investigate the condition of the parish clergy
Second to close down the smaller monasteries
Each caused resentment
Risings in Louth, Horncastle and Yorkshire sparked by the fear that they didn't trust the bishop, and his chancellor, to keep their hands off the church and its assets
Over 100 monasteries and abbeys were scheduled to be closed - opposition to this was a dominant factor
Rebels argued a range of social and economic services would be affected, the poor and children's education would decline and 'spiritual info and preaching' from monks would disappear
Government's recent assaults on saints, pilgrimages and holy days - another prominent factor for rebels as meant a great deal to people
Economic and Social
The Amicable Grant 1525
This grant made demands upon the Laity and Clergy.
Wolsey had tried to tax whichever yielded the highest return, be it land, income or personal assets.
The Laity had to pay a special tax of 5% if they were below £20, 7.5% if they were between £20 + £50 and 16.5% if there were above £50.
The Clergy were hit harder. They had to pay at a rate of 25% of their annual revenue or value of their movable goods wort less £10. Or 33% for those above £10.
Many of the protestors would have been paying tax for the first time with rates they couldn't afford to meet.
There was a shortage of coin, hence the need to collect the tax.
Unemployment was increasing due to a fall in the price of Wool.
The people of Suffolk claimed that it was down to a lack of work that they couldn't pay the tax.
The Grant with the recent tax demands and the worsening economic conditions are what triggered the rebellion.
The Pilgrimage of Grace 1536
The 14th item of the Pontefract Articles discussed the removal of 'taxes now granted by act of Parliament' - this is the Subsidy Act of 1534.
They argued that the king should only be able to tax the realm in defense of the realm.
The Act meant that Henry could gather taxes when he wanted as a reward for the debt of gratitude owed to him by England.
Over in Lincolnshire there were rumors that the taxes would turn on white meant and horned cattle - this worried a lot of people (those who had cattle as a source of income).
In reality the Subsidy's yeild only affected a small number of people and made £80,000.
But many rebels argued that they couldn't afford it.
Aske (pilgrimage of Grace) mentioned the affect of inflation and wanted prices to return to the level they were in 1485.
This had an impact on religion because the monastries were a large source of income in the North, if they were to close then there would be a considerable decrease in standard of living. once food prices rose, ordinary people would turn to them for help.
PoG- Rents had risen drastically resulting in many tenants being unable to pay so they were evicted from their lands. This was because landlords, such as Henry Percy had raised entry fines for their own benefit.
Pilgrimage of Grace
1 Pontefract article cited enclosures as a cause for the PoG.
Rioting against illegal enclosures in 1535.