Animal Biological Processes (Circulation and Gas Exchange (Circulatory…
Animal Biological Processes
Circulation and Gas Exchange
fluid diffuses into the lymphatic system
recovered fluid (lymph) circulates, then drains
*The main idea is that the lymphatic and cardiovascular system work together to recover from loss of capilary fluid
Blood Pressure: the pressure of blood circulating the arteries. Produced by the heart contractions
The function of blood pressure is so the the blood beig circulated can flow from higher pressure to lower pressure, which is essential to life.
Healthy blood pressure: 120/70
parts of circulatory system
arteries: carries from heart to different organs in the body
Veins: vessels that bring the blood back to the heart
Capllaries: vessels that collectively infiltrate tissues and exchange dissolved gas and chemicals
Skin: used as a respiratory device for animals such as earthworms and amphibians
Lungs: located inside of the body, and helps animals with both open and closed circulatory systems respirate,
Gills: pumps water over its arches for ventilation. they can vary in shape and size dending on the animal.
types of hearts
Frog:Have a 3 chambered heart: two atria and one ventricle, double circulation
FIsh: have single circulation
Mammals: have double circulation
many organs and muscles are used in breathing such as: diaphragm, trachea, rib muscles, and brain
Positive pressure breathing: forces air down the trachea to ventilate its lungs
Negative pressure breathing: pulls air into lungs when muscles contract, which vetilates its lungs
Single ciculation: blood travels all throughout the body and returns to the place that it started
EX: sharks, rays, and bony fishes
Closed circulatory system: blood is confined to circulatory vessels only.
EX: all vertebrates
Double circulation: where the pumps of two circuits are connect to the hear. One circuit pumps oxyyginated blood and the other pumps deoxiginated blood.
EX: amphibains, reptiles, and mammals
Open circulatory system: hemolymph acts as circulatory fluid and interstitial fluid.
EX; arthropods and some moluscs
Osmoregulation and Excretion
difference of osmoregulation in fish
Freshwater: intake salt and osmotic water through gills
Marine fish: excrete salt ions and osmotic water through gills.
excretory systems: the function is that each animal has a way to get rid of its metabolic waste
metanephridia: excretory system used by annelids, collect fluid from the coelem or body cavity, where fluid is then collected in a tube and released.
malpighian tubules are used by insects and other arthropods. tubes that have hemolymph on one end, and connect to a digestive tract opening.
Protonephridia: excretory system used by flatworms. interstitual fluid is drawn in by cilia, then the filtrate empties
Kidney: acts as a osmoregulator and an excretory system in vertebrates. they are highly organized and nonsegmented. they come in pairs and is the place where urine is stored.
Ammonia: can only be tolerated at low concentrations. therefor, a lot of water is needed.
EX: aquatic species
Urea: excreted by terrestrial animals. Waste product resulted from mix of ammonia and carbon dioxide in organs
Uric acid: excreted by insects, snails, reptiles, and birds. Not very toxic, released as semisolid waste. needs more ATP for excretion and synthesis
the form and function has changed over time due to natural selection
Function: to process the blod filtrate
Parts of Nephron
Loop of Henle
Cortex of ascending limb
What is it? a process that helps cells balance water gain and loss
How does it work? water enters and leaves cells to maintain balance. There are several components that help this process work: solute, water, and selectively permeable membrane