Cow with abdominal problems (Traumatic reticulo-peritonitis (Clinical…
Cow with abdominal problems
With starch and sugar digestion, the pH decreases. Organisms tolerant to lower pH predominate and these produce the VFAs Propionate and Butyrate.
At even lower pH lactate is produced and this leads to rumen acidosis and rumen stasis, the bacterial population changes.
Salivation = buffering system in the rumen
cow produces 100-150litres/day, contains bicarbonate which maintains rumen pH close to neutral
saliva produced by chewing and ruminating
in the diet
Needs to be comfortable, laying in comfortable housing for 14 hr per day.
sudden ingestion of large amounts of fermentable carbohydrates
overfeeding of concentrates
animals breaking into feed stores
sudden lack of forage or straw bedding
Life threatening clinical emergency with a poor prognosis
Dull +/- recumbent
anorexia, blind, dehydration
rumen stasis and abdominal distension
dehydrated, increased pulse, sunken eyes
5% sodium bicarbonate slow IV, 5 litres per 450kg over 30 min
IV fluids isotonic NaCl 150ml/kg over 6-12hr
oral MgOH 500g/450kg
Rumenotomy +/- rumen lavage
Ruminal Acidosis (SARA)
Low milk fat and depressed milk yields
Laminitis (sole ulcers, solar haemorrhages)
Haemoptysis and epistaxis caused by thrombosis of caudal vena cava
caudal vena cava syndrome
ruminal acidosis > rumenitis > liver abscessation > thrombus in caudal vena cava if vessel wall infiltrated by the abscess
bacteria involved e.g. E.coli, Staphylococci, Streptococci
High herd culling rate
Rumen Bloat (Tympany)
Mild: distension of left sub lumbar fossa
More severe: distension of whole left flank
very severe: entire abdomen appears distended
May present as sudden death in severe cases
may appear distressed, dyspnoea
may be recumbent
may be standing quietly and only distension detected.
foam forms in rumen, which traps gas and cannot eructate out
usually cattle at pasture, caused by foaming properties of soluble leaf proteins
Rich lush pastures
can occur with cereal rich diets
remove cattle from pasture or feed source
trocar and stomach tube will
oral tx with anti-foaming agent/surfactant which will allow foam to disperse
Poloxalene 25-50g (bloat guard)
Mineral oil, corn (maize) oil 500ml
Simethicone 100ml (BIRP)
sit in sternal recumbency if cow down to allow eructation
careful pasture management
care when using lush pastures esp. clovers
consider strip grazing
buffer feeding etc to prevent large, rapid and excessive intakes of lush pastures
excessive carbohydrate intakes
lesions of oesophageal groove
Enlarged mediastinal LNs (after pneumonia)
lateral recumbency (blocks cardia)
Left sub lumbar fossa, tuber coxae and last rib. Draw like and base of equilateral triangle
metal objects eaten tend to pass into and remain in the reticulum
sharp metallic objects penetrate wall of reticulum
vague and numerous presentations
drop of milk yield and reduced appetite
arching of back
rumen contraction rate down and reticulo-rumen movements reduced of painful
feel jugular pulse
'splashing' sounds over heart
Eric Williams test
tie animal up standing with front feet at a higher level than back feet
parenteral antibiotics 5-7 days
Rumenotomy to remove wire
Magnet designed to sit in reticulum and prevent metal going through reticulum wall
Left displaced abomasum
High producing dairy cows, usually within 6 weeks of calving.
Aetiology (poorly understood)
poor management over transition period (dry period to post calving period)
High concentrate, low roughage diet
possibly due to hyperisulinaemia or increased concentrations of volatile fatty acids which reduce abomasa motility.
high concentrate diets result in increased gas production in the abomasum
Diet changes made too quickly
other diseases e.g. milk fever, retained foetal membranes
particularly in deep bodied cows
correlated with milk yield, suggesting correct selection practices for milk production are increasing the incidence of abomasa displacement.
and dysfunction of the intrinsic nervous system play an important role in development of displacement or volvulus
concurrent disease (mastitis, metritis) associated with endotoxaemia and decreased rumen fill
periparturient changes in the position of intra-abdominal organs
sublicnical and clinical ketosis
may be associated with decreased rumen fill
2ry ketosis is also common and may be complication by the development of hepatic lipidosis
ketosis that develops in association with abomasa displacement responds only transiently to treatment and recurs
primary ketosis develops early in lactation in high-producing cows and responds to therapy permanently if instituted early.
Clinical signs (mild initially/highly variable)
drop in milk yield
reduced or changed appetite
cases will have raised ketone levels in blood + urine
Loss of body condition
reduced rumen contractions
simultaneous percussion and auscultation for
over the whole left flank
Other (rare) causes of left pings
characteristic LDA ping commonly located in an area between
ribs 9 and 13
in the middle to upper third of the left abdomen. The ping can be more ventral or more caudal or both.
'water drop into metal bucket'
Roll + toggle
right flank omentopexy
left flank omentopexy
right paramedian abomasopexy
mild metabolic alkalosis with hypochloraemia and hypokaeamia are common
the hypochloraemic metabolic alkalosis is due to...
continued secretion of hydrochloric acid into abomasum
partial abomasal outflow obstruction, with sequestration of chloride in the abomasum and reflex into the rumen
hypokalaemia is due to...
decreased intake of feeds high in potassium
sequestration of potassium in the abomasum
Right displaced abomasum
similar to LDA, but less common
RDA can twist to become an
abomasal torsion or volvulus
In cattle with abomasa volvulus, blood l-lactate concentrations ≤2 mmol/L indicate a positive outcome with surgical correction, whereas cattle with blood l-lactate concentrations ≥6 mmol/L have a high probability of a negative outcome.
acute intestinal obstruction, blood supply compromised, ischaemic necrosis
cow sick, shocked, dehydrated, pain
requires surgery within hours or euthanasia on humane grounds.
Because the abomasum is suspended loosely by the greater omentum and lesser omentum, it can be moved from its
normal position on the right ventral part of the abdomen
to the left or right side (LDA, RDA)
Ping commonly located in the area between ribs 10 and 13 on the right abdomen
similar predisposing factors and variable clinical signs to an LDA.
caecal apex palpable coming into pelvic inlet ('sausage pointing towards you')
ping on the right paralumbar fossa
Can also be produced by gas in the spiral colon which is not clinically significant.
Right sided pings also caused by: RDA, abomasal volvulus, caecal dilation/volvulus.
free caudal end may twist causing
if this occurs: drain surgically. Exteriorise, pack abdomen, incise apex and drain.
fluids, high fibre diet