Urban Issues And Challenges (Challenges with urban Growth (Managing…
Urban Issues And Challenges
Urban Growth LIC& NEE Case Study: Rio de Janeiro
Rio is the second largest city in Brazil. It is a major industrial, administrative, commercial and tourist centre.
Rio has grown rapidly in the past 50 years, which has attracted many migrants from rural Brazil and other countries to swell the population of Rio.
Rio’s population is 6.5 million in the city and 12.5 million in the surrounding area. The 2015 rate of natural increase was 9.08 per 1000 people.
Authorities have tried to improve health care in the favela of Santa Marta. It is 13km from the nearest hospital and very difficult to get to due to a lack of road access.
The growth of Rio’s urban areas has boosted the city’s economy. The city now has many forms of economic activity
manufacturing (computers and electronics)
In order to reduce traffic congestion and improve air quality, the city has expanded it’s metro system under Guanabara bay.
Challenges with urban Growth
There are up to 1000 Favelas (illegal squatter settlements) in Brazil. Rocinha is the largest Favela with 75,000 inhabitants in 2010.
Houses are poorly constructed with basic materials, there is limited road access, a lack of services, high unemployment and crime and poor health.
Education in Rio is compulsory for 6-14yrs, only half of Rio’s population continue their education after 14.
The main reasons for low education are a shortage of schools, a lack of money and need to work and a shortage of teachers.
There is 20% unemployment in Favelas, many people work in the informal economy. The government is using education ‘The Schools of Tomorrow’ programme to teach practical skill’s based courses to young people in favelas.
Murder, kidnapping, carjacking, and armed assault occur regularly in Rio. Police have sought to take back control of crime-dominated Complexo do Alemao favela with the Pacifying Police Units (UPPs).
Managing environmental issues
air and water pollution,
Improving the quality of life
mobility and employment prospects for Favela inhabitants have improved. It has become a UN recognised model.
There are still a few issues such as the US$1bn budget will not cover every favela, residents lack skills and resources to make repairs and rents rise in improved favelas making the poorest even worse off.
The Local Authority built paved and named roads, access to a drainage system, health education and leisure facilities.