7.1 nonrenewable energy - fossil fuels ( (Non Renewable energy resources:…
7.1 nonrenewable energy - fossil fuels
Non Renewable energy resources: Fossil fuels, ( oil, coal, and natural gas) and in the nuclei of certain atoms
Renewable energy resources: Wind, flowing water, energy from the sun, biomass and heat it in the earths interior
Fossil fuels: the product of ancient plant and animals remains buried millions of years ago and subjected to intense heat and pressure.
Net energy: the amount of high quality energy available from a given quantity of an energy resource, minus the the high quality energy to make the energy available
Energy density: the amount of energy available per kilogram of resource
Oil is the second most widely used energy resource in the world and the most widely used energy in the United States.
Crude oil, Petroleum, Conventional oil, contains a mixture of Combustible hydrocarbons, along with small amounts of sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen impurities.
Proven oil reserves: Known deposits from which oil can be extracted profitability at current prices using current technology.
Conventional Oil advantages and disadvantages:
-Ample supply for several decades
-net energy is medium but decreasing
-low land disruption
-efficient distribution system
-water pollution from oil spills and leaks
-environmental ost not included in the market price
-releases CO2 and other air pollutants when burned
-vulnerable to international supply interruptions
High pressure pumps: force a mixture of water, sand, and cocktail of chemicals through holes in the well pipe to fracture the shale rock and create cracks.
Problems with hydrofracking for shale oil:
-Huge energy input
-uses large amounts of water
-wastewater can contaminate local environment nd groundwater
heavy oil from oil sands Advantages and Disadvantages:
-Large potential supplies
-easily transported within and between countries
-the efficient distribution system in place
-Low net energy
-releases CO2 and other air pollutants
-severe land disruptions
-water pollution and high water use
Natural gas: is a mixture of gases
Versatile fuel: widely used for cooking, heating and industrial purposes
Advantages and disadvantages of natural gas:
-Often lies above oil deposits, therefore cheaper to extract
-Natural gas power plants are less expensive and take much less time to build than doing could powered nd nuclear power plants.
-Natural gas burns cleaner than oil and much leaner than coal
-natural gas low price could also slow the shift to reliance n renewable, clean energy resources
-fracking used to acquire natural gas leaks large quantities of methane into the atmosphere
-Poses a large risk of groundwater pollution y the toxic waste produced
Coal: is a solid fossil fuel formed from the remains of land plants that were buried nd exposed to intense heat and pressure for 300-400 million years.
Coal advantages and disadvantages:
-Ample supplies n many countries
-medium to high net energy
-low cost when environmental costs are not included
-severe land disturbance and water pollution
-fine particle and toxic mercury emissions threaten human health
-emits large amounts of CO2 and other air pollutants when produced and burned
Energy and energy usage