Urine is a sterile excretion composed of filtered and processed blood plasma.
Urine composition is approximately 95% water and 5% solutes, including salts, nitrogenous wastes, some
hormones, drugs, and small amounts of ketone bodies or fatty acid waste products.
Variations in daily fluid volume occur due to fluid intake, blood pressure, diet, body temperature, diuretics usage,
diabetes, and the amount of fluid excreted by other means, such as heavy sweating and vomiting.
Normal urine pH ranges between 4.5 and 8.0, with an average value of 6.0.
The density of a substance compared to the density of water is called the specific gravity.
Specific gravity below 1.010 indicates hydration and specific gravity above 1.020 indicates dehydration.
Urine color ranges from clear to dark yellow, depending on the amount of urobilin present.
The term used for the normal smell of fresh urine is urinoid.