Hematuria (urinating blood) (continual HTN eventually leads to damage of…
Hematuria (urinating blood)
structures of urinary system
an expandable, muscular, organ that serves as a reservoir for urine and is located in the retroperitineum
is the fibromuscular tube that exits the urinary bladder, transporting urine to the exterior of the
once blood is filtered and "filtrate" is produced, it is removed from the kidney to the urinary bladder via the Ureter; a small fibromuscular tubule connected to the kidney at the renal pelvis and the urinary bladder
Nephrons are the microscopic filtration unit of the kidney and composed of;
site of glomerular filtration
is composed of the glomerulosa,vascular pole, capsular space, and a tubular pole that transitions into the renal tubule. its main function is the passive separation of water and solutes from the blood plasma into the renal tubule
this separation is known as filtration and occurs in the glomerular capillaries.
a filtration membrane, basement membrane, and a fenestrated endothelium allow for the passive filtration of plasma and small dissolved substances to pass while restricting the passage of larger structures. this is called filtrate
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site of renal absorption (movement of substances from tubular fluid back to the blood) /secretion (movement of substances from the blood to the tubular fluid)
is compromised of the Proximal convoluted tubule; nephron loop; and Distal convoluted tubule. the main function of the renal tubule is the re-absorption of water and solutes into the blood stream, and the secretion of waste or unwanted substances into the collecting tubule for excretion
most nutrients are typically reabsorbed completely in the PCT including glucose and the small amount of protein.
some nutrients have a regulated re-absorption such as; Na+, K+, HCO3-, Ca2+, and water. with Na+ playing a major role in reabsorption
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two symmetrical, bean-shaped, reddish-brown organs that are composed of Nephrons. these are the physical units that perform the blood filtration within the kidney
filter blood; increase blood pressure; increase calcium reapsorbtion; increase RBC production; works as acid-base buffer
function of urinary system
Osteoporosis is a bone disease that occurs when the body loses too much bone, makes too little bone, or both
type II diabetes is a condition in which, the body either doesn't produce enough insulin, or it resists insulin.
hypertension is defined as blood pressure above 140/90 and is a condition in which the force of the blood against the artery walls is too high.
The kidneys play a key part in the regulation of the blood pressure, of nutrient absorption, and RBC production via regulatory hormones.
Osteoporosis causes a depletion of bone mass
DM II negatively effects the reuptake or nutrients via insulin deficiency
hypertension causes issues with the Glomerular filtration system
continual HTN eventually leads to damage of vessels, specifically at the renal corpuscle.
if kidney vessels are damaged, they are not able to remove all wastes and extra fluid from your body
which leads to extra fluids in the vasculature, and further increases HTN
Damage to kidneys due to diabetes is known as diabetic neuropathy
this is the number one cause of complete renal failure, and if left untreated, the pt. will soon require dialysis
HTN and DM II have compounding effects and will lead to quicker deterioration of renal vessels
if left untreated the pt. will likely become dependent upon dialysis for filtration of blood, will likely suffer from systemic vascular compromise leading to cardiovascular disease, neuropathy and eventual limb amputation. the pt's osteoporosis will continue to worsen and lead to brittle bone disease
damaged kidneys (chronic kidney disease) CKD and abnormal hormone levels cause calcium and phosphorus levels to be out of balance
this imbalance leads to mineral and bone disorders and is common among individuals suffering from CKD
this pt's hematuria is most likely caused by the rupture of capillaries or cysts around capillaries due to an increase in blood pressure that supplies the kidney.