:green_book: Chapter 5 Life Science (Advances in Genetics (Inbreeding…
The Genetic Code
The genetic code is stored in DNA, encoded with nitrogen bases
Nitrogen bases can be represented by the letters:
T (DNA) or U (RNA)
The nitrogen bases code for amino acids with 3 letter codes. Each gene (containing lots of nitrogen bases) codes for a specific protein.
Because of how the nitrogen bases pair up (A to T/U & G to C) DNA can replicate easily.
The DNA unzips
Nitrogen bases in the cell nucleus
pair up with the bases on the DNA halves.
Now there are 2 identical pieces of DNA.
How Cells Make Proteins
As was said earlier, 3 bases code for one amino acid that makes up a protein.
mRNA get's the code from DNA be pretending to duplicate it. Any T's get replaced by U.
This get's taken to the cytoplasm where it heads to the ribosomes.
When the mRNA reaches the ribosome, the tRNA attaches to the mRNA to make sure it's releasing the right amino acid into the growing protein chain.
Then a certain 3 letter code stops the addition of more amino acids and releases the finished protein.
They can be good or bad or neither
In terms of reproducing & surviving
Neither: Doesn't help or hurt
Good: Helps the chances
Adaption to the Environment
Other helpful things
Bad: It hurts the chances
One of these is cancer
Cancer is when the cell cycle get's disrupted, causing the cell to divide uncontrollably and makes more mutated cells
The Cells clump in groups called tumors
Some cells break off and spread across the body thru the circulation system
Sex chromosomes not only control the gender, but they also determine other traits called sex-linked genes
Sex chromosomes are the only chromosomes that don't always match up.
The X is bigger than the Y, with having 2 X gives a girl, XY however give a guy.
Most of the time, if there is a recessive gene, there won't be a matching allele on the Y so the male will exhibit the receive trait.
BTW the male determines the gender by either giving the X chromosome making a female, or a Y giving a male.
3 complex patterns of inheritance
Multiple variations of 1 gene
The Simplest, two variations of 1 gene
Multiple Genes that work together
The most complex, multiple genes that all work together
Advances in Genetics
Breeding two genetically similar individuals to make offspring with desired traits from both parents.
Editing the genome of the organism to produce desired traits without chance of any imperfections
Choosing what organism mates with what other organism to produce desired traits in the offspring.