SYNTAX The part of grammar that represents a speaker's knowledge of sentences and their structure
1- WHAT THE SYNTAX RULES DO
1- Conbine words into phrases and phrases into sentences.
2- Specify the correct word order for a languaje
3- Describe the relationship between the meaning of a group of words and the arragement of the words.
4- Specify the grammatical relations of a sentence such as the subject and direct objet.
5- Specify constraints on sentences based on the verb of the sentence.
6- Tall us how words form groups and are hierarchically ordered in a sentence.
2- WHAT GRAMMATICALITY IS NOT BASED ON
Is not based in meaningfulness
In not based in truthfulness
Attempts to give a set of rules that will correctly predict which combinations of words will form a grammatical sentence.
3- SYNTAX STRUCTURES
Grammar will have a finite number of rules but will generate infinite number of well formed structures.
An abstract level of structural organization.
It refers to the sentence as it is pronounced or written.
4- STRUCTURAL AMBIGUITY
Distinct underlying interpresentations that have to be represented differently in deep estructure.
A sentence can have more than one meaning
E.g. The boy saw the man with the telescope
. so each meaning can be represented by a different phrase structure
5- SENTENCE STRUCTURE
Sentences can be separated into several groups.
Can be used to show the hierarchy of the sentences
CONSTITUENTS AND CONTITUENCY TEST.
1- Stand alone test.
3- Move as an unit
: Every sentence has at least one constituent structure if a sentence has mores; then, it is ambiguous.
6- SYNTACTIC CATEGORIES.
Is a family of expressions that can subtitute for one another without loss of grammatically.
7- TREE DIAGRAM
Provides us visual representation of the constituents of the corresponding expression.
A phrase Estructure Tree:
Is a tree diagram with syntactic category information.
: Immediately dominates the categories below it. (Eg. S=sentence)
Categories immediately dominated by the same node. (Eg. V and NP are sisters)
PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES:
Specify the well fored structures of asentence.
Specify the well-formed structures of a sentence.
S = NP + VP
NP = Det + N
VP = V + NP
V + PP
V + CP
PP = P + NP
CP = C + S
9- HEADS AND COMPLEMENTS
Phrase structure tree also show the relationchip among the elements
A Noun headS a NP
A Verb heads a VP
Every phrase has a head, but may or may not take a complement or sister.
(Eg. VP may be V+NP or just a Verb.)
WHAT HEADS THE SENTENCE:
Auxiliary Verbs: will, has, is and modals head a sentence.
Sentences whitout auxiliarty take the tense as the head.
8- THE INFINITY OF LANGUAGE RECURSIVE RULES.
are rules in which a phrasal category can contain itself.
(E.g. PP containing a NP or CP containing a S)
(Inteligent handsone man)
(The girl's dress)
By: Teresa Palacios