Chapter 3: Electric Current & Direct Current Circuit (aiman T17) (3.7…
Chapter 3: Electric Current & Direct Current Circuit
3.1 Electrical Conduction
Electric current, I
Direction of electric field/ electric current: ( positive to negative terminal )
Direction of electron flows: ( negative to positive terminal )
I = Q/t
I - total (net) charge
Q - charge
t - time
1 ampere = 1 coulomb/ 1 second
current flowing through a conductor per unit cross-sectional area.
J = I/A
ampere per square meter (Am^-2)
I - electric current
A - cross sectional area of conductor
Direction of current density always same direction of the current,I.
Drift velocity of charges,Vd
N = nAL
N - no.of free electron
n - free electron
L - length
A - cross sectional area
Total charge,Q of free electron that pass through the area,A along rod is
Q = Ne
Vd = J/ne
J = I/A
n - density of free electron
e - charge of electron
3.2 Resistivity And Ohm's Law
- is that property which opposes or limits current in electrical circuit.
defined as ratio of the applied voltage (PD) to the current that flows through the conductor.
R = V / I
Unit: ohm @ VA^-1
Resistance of conductor depends on:
Type of material made
Cross-sectional area (A)
the resistance of a unit cross-sectional area per unit length material.
defined as the reciprocal of the resistivity of the material.
- states that the voltage drop across a conductor,V is proportional to the current,I through it if its physical conditions & temp. are constant.
V = IR
3.3 Electromotive Force (emf), Internal Resistance & Potential Difference
Emf and Potential Difference,V
- the energy provided by the source to each unit charge that flows through the external & internal resistance.
Terminal potential difference,V - the work done in bringing a unit charge from the negative to positive terminal of battery through external resistance only.
Internal resistance of a battery,r
the resistance of chemicals inside the battery between the poles.
3.4 Electrical Energy & Power
The work done on this charge,Q from B to A:
the energy liberated per unit time in the electrical device.
P = IV
When the electric current flow through wire or passive resistor, hence the potential difference across it is V=Ir then electrical power is:
Unit: watts (W)
3.5 Combination of Resistors
3.6 Kirchhoff's Laws
states that algebraic sum of the currents entering any junctions in a circuit must equal the algebraic sum of the currents leaving that junction.
Kirchhoff's Second Law ( loop or voltage law )
states in any closed loop, the algebraic sum of emfs is equal to the algebraic sum of the products of current & resistance.
3.7 Electrical Measurement Devices
device that measure current.
connected in series.
device that measure voltage.
used to measure the resistance.
consists of a meter, resistor & source connected is series.
a current-sensitive device whose needle deflection is proportional to the current through its coil.
operates on magnetic principles.
Shunt & Multiplier
- Galvanometer can be converted to a useful ammeter by placing a shunt resistor in parallel with the galvanometer.
Value of Rc must less than the galvanometer resistance.
- Galvanometer can be used as a voltmeter by adding a multiplier resistor in series with it.
Rc must have a value much greater than the resistance of the galvanometer.