Psycholinguistic Perspectives and Contributions of ELL and ELT…
Psycholinguistic Perspectives and Contributions of ELL and ELT
Psycholinguistics and Second Language Components
It is related to vocabulary items. Psycholinguistics sees lexis in terms of reception and production. In terms of reception, current accounts of how words are identified by a listener or a reader do not assume a simple one-to-one match between input and word. Lexical retrieval in production is assisted by the way in which entries are stored in mind.
It describes the speaker’s knowledge of
the language. Wray (2002) holds that our capacity to produce speech rapidly is dependent upon frequently occuring groups of words being stored in the mind as pre-assembled chunks.
It is the establishment and description of the distinctive sound
units of a language by means of distinctive features. Language users store many different versions of a single phoneme (Bybee, 2001), one accounts for the way in which listeners adjust gradually to an unfamiliar variety through multiple encounters with speakers of that variety.
Psycholinguistics and Four Second Language Skills
It seems that listening, even in one's first language, is a highly tentative process, with hypotheses constantly being formed and revised. This receptive skill includes two phases: a) perceptual phase which is called decoding and, b) conceptual phase which is called encoding.
It is necessary for readers to hold decoded words in their minds until the end of a clause or sentence is reached and syntactic pattern can imposed on them. There is evidence that the words are stored in some kind of phonological form (Perffeti, 1985) -hence the fact that readers sometimes report a "voice in the head".
Levelt (1999) introduces a psycholinguistic model for speaking. It compromises five steps through which an utterance is produced.
1) Conceptualization: idea generation and planning to express it.
2) Grammatical encoding: constructing syntactic frame.
3) Phonological encoding: converting abstract plan into a string of words.
4) Orthographic encoding: adjusting the phological sequence, linking syllables to fingers.
5) Articulation: producing the utterance.
Writing is typically expected to be more precise, concise and polished than that of speaking-emphasizing the importance of the planning and monitoring phases. Writing helps to specify the writing level and anting types. It pins down the mechanic mistakes on punctuation and suggests certain cures for them.
Psycholinguistics and Second Language Teaching Methods
In this group, we see Grammar-translation (the explicit explanation of grammatical rules using the native language and the use of translation), Natural (introducing the second language to a learner exactly as the native language had been experienced), Direct (it emphasized the learning of speech, acquiring meaning in environmental context and learning grammar through induction), and Audio-lingual Method (it emphasizes the teaching of listening and speaking before reading and writing).
Steinberg and Sciarini (2006) use a euphemism for the short-lived methods and call them offbeat methods which appeared then disappeared. Four that have not survived are cognitive code, community language learning, silent way and suggestopedia. All the short-lived methods have been supported by generative grammar linguistics and cognitive psychology.
Contemporary methods are such methods that new trends of psychology and linguistics applied to shape and make them practical in the atmosphere of language classes. They are: Total Physical Response, Communicative Language Teaching, Natural Approach, Content-based Instruction, Task-based Language Teaching and Computer-assisted Language Learning.