лексикологія дис (Free word-groups and phraseological units.…
Free word-groups and phraseological units.
are relatively free as collocability of their member-words is delimited by their lexical and grammatical features (which may look like set-phrases).
are lexically motivated;
Scope of valency
high variability, restricted only by lexical or grammatical valence.
Function in speech.
are spontaneously formed in the speech.
are stable and semantically inseparable.
non or partially motivated
Scope of valency
are either invariable or the changes in the components are very limited.
Function in speech
reproduced as ready-made elements
the terms that reflect the main issues of phraseology
(concerning different views on nature and essential features of phraseological units and their difference from free word-groups).
stability of the lexical components and grammatical structure of word-groups
Idiomaticity or lack of motivation of the word groups
very often treated as synonymous with the term phraseological unit.
semantic and functional inseparability of certain word-groups
their suitability to function in speech as single words.
classification of phraseological units according to
the ways they are formed (A.V.Koonin)
a unit is formed on the basis of a free word-group by means of
transforming the meaning of free word groups
«Trojan horse» - «комп'ютерна програма»;
transferring the meaning of terminological word-groups
in cosmic technique «launching pad» - «стартова площадка» - terminological meaning
in transferred meaning - «відправний пункт»
«a sad sack» - «нещасний випадок»
expressiveness, especially for forming interjections
«My aunt!» - an exclamation of surprise or amazement.
distorting (змінити форму) a word group
«odds and ends» (непотрібні деталі) was formed from «odd ends»
«in brown study» - (in gloomy meditation)
using a sentence in a different sphere of life,
«that cock won’t fight»
free word-group - cock fighting
phraseological unit - Этот номер не пройдет (used metaphorically)
using some unreal image
«to have green fingers» «робити успіхи у садівництві»
using expressions of writers or politicians in everyday life
«American dream» (Alby)
a phraseological unit is formed on the basis of another phraseological unit;
«to vote with one’s feet» was converted into «vote with one’s feet»;
changing the grammar form
«Make hay while the sun shines» is transferred into a verbal phrase - «to make hay while the sun shines»;
«Curiosity killed the cat» was transferred into «Care killed the cat»;
«thin cat» - «a poor person» was formed by contrasting it with «fat cat»;
shortening of proverbs or sayings by means of clipping the middle of it the phraseological unit
«You can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear»(свиня) - «to make a sow’s ear» - «помилятися».
borrowing phraseological units from other languages either es
by means of phonetic borrowings
(refer to the bookish style and are not used very often)
«living space» (German)
«sotto voce» (Italian)
the degree of the motivation of their meaning (semantic classification) (V.V. Vinogradov)
suggested for Russian phraseological units.
types of phraseological units where
the degree of motivation is very low, we cannot guess the meaning of the whole from the meanings of its components, they are highly idiomatic and cannot be translated word for word into other languages
at sixes and sevens - (in a mess)
the meaning of the whole can be guessed from the meanings of its components, but it is transferred (metaphorical or metonymical)
old salt (an experienced sailor)
words are combined in their original meaning but their combinations are different in different languages
cash and carry - (self-service shop)
their structure (A.I. Smirnitsky)
types of one top unit
(compared with derived words because they have only one root morpheme)
units of the type «
to give up
verb + postposition type
to drop out, to sandwich in, to back up
units of the type
«to be tired».
remind the Passive Voice in their structure but they have different prepositions with them, while in the Passive Voice we can have only prepositions «by» or «with»,
to be tired of, to be interested in, to be surprised at etc
prepositional-nominal phraseological units
(equivalents of unchangeable words: prepositions, conjunctions, adverbs) that is why they have no grammar centre, their semantic centre is the nominal part,
on the doorstep (quite near)
In the course of time such units can become words
types of two-top units
(compared with compound words because they have two root morphemes)
attributive-nominal (are noun equivalents)
1) partly idiomatic units (phrases) – have the first component idiomatic.
2) perfectly idiomatic – have the second component is idiomatic,
3)both components are idiomatic
1) high road (main road - друге слово залишається в прямому значенні)
2) first night (the first public performance of a play or show - перше слово залишається в прямому значенні)
3) red tape (надмірна бюрократія або дотримання правил і формальностей, особливо в державному бізнесі.: - два слова в непрямому значенні)
verb-nominal phraseological units,
The grammar centre of such units is the verb,
the semantic centre in many cases is the nominal component
to fall in love.
In some units the verb is both the grammar and the semantic centre
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to burn one’s boats(сжечь мосты)
(are equivalents of adverbs or adjectives and have no grammar centre)
1) built on antonyms
2) formed by means of alliteration,
Components are joined by means of conjunctions.
1) ups and downs, back and forth;
2) cakes and ale, as busy as a bee.
1) Partly idiomatic
2) Perfectly idiomatic
1) cool as a cucumber (холоднокровний)
2) bread and butter (мати їстівні ресурси для виживання)
more than two tops (stems in compound words),
to take a back seat,
their part-of-speech meaning(syntactical classification)
noun phraseologisms denoting an object, a person, a living being
bullet train, latchkey child, redbrick university, Green Berets,
verb phraseologisms denoting an action, a state, a feeling,
to break the log-jam, to get on somebody’s coattails, to be on the beam, to nose out , to make headlines,
adjective phraseologisms denoting a quality
loose as a goose, dull as lead,
adverb phraseological units
such as with a bump, in the soup, like a dream, like a dog with two tails, (відповідають на питання як)
preposition phraseological units
the course of,
the stroke of ,
interjection phraseological units,
«Catch me!», «Well, I never!»
sentence equivalents, proverbs, sayings and quatations
The sky is the limit, What makes him tick, I am easy.
Proverbs - metaphorical
Too many cooks spoil the broth,
Sayings - non-metaphorical
Where there is a will there is a way.
Diachronic aspect of phraseology.
Assumption: free word-group undergo grammaticalization or lexicalization and transformed into a phraseological unit.
acquired semantic and grammatical inseparability
becomes synchronically non-motivated
transformation of free word-groups (verb have, a noun (pronoun) and Participle II of some other verb) into the grammatical form — the Present Perfect in MoE
Сauses for the loss of motivation of free word-groups:
When one of the components of a word-group becomes archaic or drops out of the language.
before ‘kith and kin’, ‘to and fro’
now kith is only in ‘kith and kin’ (kith dropped out of the language)
in the semantic structure of a polysemantic word some of its meanings disappear and can be found only in certain collocations.
before - noun mind meant ‘purpose’ or ‘intention’
now - meaning survived in ‘to have a mind to do sth, to change one’s mind’.
When a free word-group used in professional speech penetrates into general literary usage.
e.g ‘to pull (the) strings (wires)
- a free word-group in its direct meaning by professional actors in puppet shows.
- lost all connection with puppet-shows.
to stick to one’s guns which can be traced back to military English, etc.
e.g ‘to show the white feather’
‘to act as a coward’ - a white feather in a cock denoted bad breeding and sign of cowardice.
cock-fighting is not a popular sport, the phrase is non-motivated
When a word-group (making up part of a proverb or saying) begins to be used as a self-contained unit
new brooms sweep clean
always used in the plural;
new - attribute
mostly used in the singular
new broom - attribute (Well, he is a new broom!)
originates as a component of the saying new brooms sweep clean.
grammatically and functionally self-contained and inseparable
When part of a quotation from literary sources, mythology or the Bible begins to be used as a self-contained unit, loses all connection with the original context.
- green-eyed monster (jealousy) a part of the quotation from Shakespeare (Othello, II, i. 165)
- is used to denote the T.V. set.
- Achilles heel - ‘the weak spot in a man’s circumstances or character’ (mythology)
- functions as a phraseological unit not connect it with the myth.