Factors Contributing to Language Change and Types of Language Change (223…
Factors Contributing to Language Change and Types of Language Change (223-225)
Gender and Language Change
Changes towards both prestige and vernacular norms.
More of the standard final [o] pronounciations on words.
Fewer of the dialectal final [u] pronounciations.
Introduce vernacular changes.
Fewer of the standard final [o] pronounciations on words.
More of the dialectal final [u] pronounciations.
Women uses more standard forms outside the village and gradually these forms extend throughout their speech, reflecting not only their social contact but also values and aspirations.
However there are several places that provide an example of men leading this change.
For example, in Martha's Vineyard, the fishermen led the change to a more centralised pronounciation of certain vowels. This involved the revitalisation of an older, more conservative pronounciation which was re-invested with a new meaning in the light of social changes on the island.
On the other hand, women may also introduce vernacular changes and they are not leading linguistic change in any direction.
Types of Language Change
Lexical change refers to a change in the meaning of use of a word, or a generational shift in preference for one word or phrase over another.
Compounding- 2 words that are combined to create a new word.
Borrowing- To borrow a word from another language.
Example: Murder- French
Blending- 2 words that are merged together.
Initialism- A group of initial letters used as an abbreviation for a name or expression, each letter being pronounced seperately.
Example: 'BBC' (British Broadcasting Corporation).
Acronym- Initial letters that are combined to make new word.
Example: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation).
Loss of phonemes
Addition of phonemes
It occurs in the grammatical nations that govern languages.
Slow and in need for further investigation.
Old English- Subject+Obejct+Verb and Subject+Verb+Object language
Modern English- Subject+Verb+Object only