MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP (Planing and Decision Making (SOWT analysis…
MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP
Managers´ Roles are Evolving
• Managers must practice the art of getting things done through organizational resources.
• Tend to be more progressive.
• They emphasize teams and team building.
• They may change the definition of work (let you do your job anywhere, anytime).
• Teamwork and cooperation rather than discipline and order giving.
Functions of Management
• Guiding and motivating employees to work effectively to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
• Giving assignments.
• Explaining routines.
• Clarifying policies.
• Providing feedback on performance.
• Allocating resources, assigning tasks, and establishing procedures for accomplishing goals.
• Preparing a structure (organization chart) showing lines of authority and responsibility.
• Recruiting, selecting, training, and developing employees.
• Placing employees where they’ll be most effective.
Setting organizational goals.
• Developing strategies to reach those goals.
• Determining resources needed.
• Setting precise standards.
• Measuring results against corporate objectives.
• Monitoring performance relative to standards.
• Rewarding outstanding performance.
• Taking corrective action when necessary.
Planing and Decision Making
: is more than a goal; it’s a broad explanation of why the organization exists and
where it’s trying to go.
outlines the organization’s fundamental purposes.
It should addres
• The organization’s self-concept.
• Its philosophy.
• Long-term survival needs.
• Customer needs.
• Social responsibility.
• Nature of the product or service.
are the broad, long-term accomplishments an organization wishes to attain.
Objectives are specific, short-term
statements detailing how to achieve the organization’s goals.
• No clear strategic direction
• Obsolete facilities
• Subpar profitability
• Lack of managerial depth and talent
• Weak market image
• Too narrow a product line
• Ability to serve additional customer groups
• Expand product lines
• Ability to transfer skills/technology to new products
• Falling trade barriers in attractive foreign markets
• Complacency among rival firms
• Ability to grow due to increases in market demand
• Core competencies in key areas
• An acknowledged market leader
• Well-conceived functional area strategies
• Proven management
• Cost advantages
• Better advertising campaigns
• Entry of lower-cost foreign competitors
• Rising sales of substitute products
• Slower market growth
• Costly regulatory requirements
• Vulnerability to recession and business cycles
• Changing buyer needs and tastes
the setting of broad, long range goals by top managers.
the identification of specific, short-range objectives by lower level managers.
the setting of work standards and schedules.
: backup plans in case primary plans fail.
Finding the Best Alternative
Define the situation.
Describe and collect needed information.
Decide which alternative is best.
Do what is indicated (begin implementation).
Determine whether the decision was a good one, and follow up.
Organizing: Creating a Unified System
: the highest level, consists of the president and other key company executives who develop strategic plans.
: includes general managers, division managers, and branch and plant managers (in colleges, deans and department heads) who are responsible for tactical planning and controlling.
: includes those directly responsible for supervising workers and evaluating their daily performance; they’re often known as first line managers (or supervisors) because they’re the first level above workers.
Tasks and Skills
involve the ability to perform tasks in a specific discipline or department.
Human Relations skills
: involve communication and motivation; they enable managers to work through and with people.
: involve the ability to picture the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various parts.
• Communicate a vision and rally others around that vision: The leader should be openly sensitive to the concerns of followers, give them responsibility, and win their trust.
• Establish corporate values: These include concern for employees, for customers, for the environment, and for the quality of the company’s products.
• Promote corporate ethics: Ethical behavior includes an unfailing demand for honesty and an insistence that everyone in the company gets treated fairly.
• Embrace change: A leader’s most important job may be to transform the way the company does business so that it’s more effective and more efficient.
• Stress accountability and responsibility: leaders need to be held accountable and need to feel responsible for their actions.
• Autocratic leadership: means making managerial decisions without consulting others.
• Participative (democratic) leadership: involves managers and employees working together to make decisions.
• Free-rein leadership: managers set objectives and employees are free to do whatever is appropriate to accomplish those objectives.
Establishing clear performance standards. This ties the planning function to the control function. Without clear standards, control is impossible.
Monitoring and recording actual performance or results.
Comparing results against plans and standards.
Communicating results and deviations to the appropriate employees.
Taking corrective action when needed and providing positive feedback function to the control function. Without clear standards, control is impossible.