GCSE Biology (Section 1 - The nature and variety of organisms…
Section 1 - The nature and variety of organisms
Investigating enzyme activity
Protoctists, bacteria and viruses
Plants, Animals and fungi
Specialized cells and stem cells
Diffusion and osmosis experiments
Levels of Organisation
Characteristics of living organisms
Every living organisms share the same eight characteristics
They respond to their surroundings
Organisms that are alive can react to change in their environment/surroundings
Organisms move toward things like water and food, and away from things that threaten them ( some plants can move a bit )
They excrete their waste
Waste products such as carbon dioxide and urine are removed from the body - This removal is called excretion .
They can control their internal conditions
they can control temperature and water content
Organisms release energy from their food - respiration
Organisms have to produce offspring in order for the species to survive
They need nutrition
Living organisms need nutrients to provide them with energy ant the raw materials for growth and repair. Nutrients include things like proteins, fats and carbohydrates, as well as vitamins and minerals.
They grow and evelop
The organism must grow and develop into their adult form
Living organisms are made up of cells - these are like tiny building blocks. Some organisms are multi cellular - they contain lots of cells, which need some form of organisation. Some organisations consists of a single cell.
Cells contain organelles
Organelles are tiny structures within cells. You can only see them using a powerful microscope.
Here are some of the organelles found in a typical animal cell :
This membrane forms the outer surface of the cell and controls the substances that go in and out.
A gel-like substance where most of the cells chemical reactions happen. It contains enzymes which control these reactions
An organelles which contains the genetic material that controls the cells activities. It is surrounded by its own membrane.
Small organelles where most of the reactions for aerobic respiration take place. Respiration transfers energy that the cell needs to work
Cells can be Eukaryotic or prokaryotic
Eukaryotic cells are complex, and include all animal and plant cells
Prokaryotic cells are smaller and simpler
Section 3 - Plant nutrition and transport
Section 4 - Respiration and Gas exchange
Section 2 - Human nutrition
Section 5 - Blood and organs
Section 7 - Reproduction and inheritance
Section 8 - Ecology and the environment
Section 6 - coordination and response
Section 9 - Use of biological resources