Cell Division and Disease (Meiosis (Goes through PMAT twice (Phase I: Same…
Cell Division and Disease
Only somatic cells
Goes through PMAT once
In prophase, the nuclear membrane dissipates and the DNA condenses. Also, the centrioles connect to the centromeres in the chromosomes.
In metaphase, the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell, ready to be separated into the new cells.
In anaphase, the sister chromatids are pulled apart by the centrioles.
In telophase and cytokinesis, the nuclear membrane reforms and the cell divides, leaving two daughter cells.
Creates genetically identical cells
Creates genetically unique gametes
Only for sex cells
Goes through PMAT twice
Phase I: Same as Mitosis except crossing-over occurs
Phase 2: No DNA replication, one chromatid per cell
Gametes come together to form a zygote when sperm meets egg
Occurs when cells go through cell cycle too fast
Caused by a mutation in one of three genes:
Proto-oncogene: promotes cell cycle activity, when mutated is called an oncogene
Tumor suppressor gene: slows down cell cycle, can be damaged and not slow down properly
DNA repair gene: fixes DNA during S if it gets altered
Can turn into any type of cell through differentiation
Embryonic: can turn into any cell
Adult: Limited type, depends on niche
Can be used as a disease treatment
G1: Cell grows and replicates organelles
S: DNA Synthesis
G2: Cell prepares for Mitosis
M: Mitosis (Only 10% of cell cycle)