Media Planning Lecture 7 Media Planning &Media Terms, Calculations…
Media Planning Lecture 7
Media Planning &Media Terms, Calculations and Considerations
How are Media Plans Created?
Media engagement research
Media decisions are critical for advertising
because media costs are oftern the biggest element in the marketing communiation budget
The right media
otherwise is meaningless
Media information sources
Competitive advertising expenditures (i.e. share of voice)
Media coverage area
Consumer behavior reports
Newspaper readership & circulation
• Alliance for Audited media: an independent auditing group that represents advertisers, agencies, and publishers.
They verify circulation and provide a detailed analysis of the
newspaper by state, town, and county
includes local measurements in 210 US markets, connecting media consumption, lifestyles, buying behavior, and attitudes.
Over 60% of all US adults read at least one print
newspaper each week.
Only 5% of 18 to 29 year olds often get news from a print
• Half of those who are 65+ get news from a newspaper.
Magazine rates are based on the guaranteed circulation
that a publisher promises to provide
Magazine circulation is the number of copies of an issue
sold, not the readership of the publication.
Several companies verify the circulation of magazines, along with the demographic and psychographic characteristics of specific readers.
The radio audience
The radio industry and independent research firms provide several measures for advertisers, including a station’s coverage
• Coverage is the number of homes in a geographic area that can pick up the station clearly, whether those homes are actually tuned in or not.
• A better measure is station or program ratings, which measure the percent of homes actually tuned in to the particular station.
The television audience
Do the audience switch channels?
with TV turnning on, a population
referred to as households using television (HUT)
• Exposure is television’s equivalent to circulation.
• Ratings are equal to the percentage of exposure.
– A rating of 20 means that 20% of all households with TVs were tuned in to that program.
– Example: If 20 million TVs dialed in to view Sunday Night Football and there are 100 million households with TV.
– The rating equals to 20 million/100 million = 20%
Rating = number of viewers / total universe of potential viewers
（Total universe of potential viewers not all watch TV)
Share of audience is expressed as a percentage of the audience that was actually watching TV at the time.
(More accurate than rating)
– Example: If 60 million households watching TV on that particular Sunday night, and the Sunday Night Football got 20 million viewers;
– Then the show received a share of 33% = 20/60.
– A share of 33% means that the show reached one-third of all TV watchers during its broadcast.
Share = number of viewers / total number of TV watchers
The outdoor advertiser is interested in the percentage of the population of the total market (based on car or pedestrian counts) who, within a 24-hour period, is exposed one or more boards carrying the brand message.
• Showings are the percentages of the population who had the opportunity to see the sign.
– A 50 showing means that 50% of the market’s population was exposed one or more of the outdoor brand messages in one day.
Online Paid media
Media planners are interested in estimates of:
• the number of visits to a website;
• how much time was spent on the site;
• new and repeat visitors.
Key Steps in Media Planning and
Media Measures & Calculations
• the selection of vehicles in which to place ads,
Principles of vehicle selection
selecting individual vehicles.
reach an optimum number of prospects:
With an optimum amount of frequency (or repetition)
At the lowest cost per thousand prospects reached (cost efficiency)
With a minimum of waste
Within a specified budget
• the number of ads to be placed in each vehicle,
• the size of each ad, and
• the specific position within each vehicle that an ad will occupy
The media plan
Media objectives to achieve your marketing objectives
should be quantify
• Media requires strong basic math skills and an understanding of the following concepts:
Reach - How many people will see the ad?
• Reach is the percent of different people exposed to a brand message at least once within a specified period of time.
– A TV program might have an A25-34 rating of 4.5
• Targeted reach is the percentage of a vehicle’s audience that matches the brand’s target market.
• Wasted reach is the number of people in the vehicle’s audience who are neither customers nor prospects.
Frequency - How often will they see it?
• Frequency refers to the repetition of message exposure.
Frequency = number of times our target audience is
exposed to our advertising
– OTS/OTH – “opportunities/likelihood to see/hear”
• Average frequency = Average number of exposure opportunities of those reached.
Effective reach - How many people will see it at least three times? Four times? N times?
Effective frequency - How often should the ad be seen to have an effect on an audience?
Where (the media vehicles used)
When (time frame)
How big (media weight)
Media metrics &
At what cost (cost efficiency)