Basic Animal anatomy and physiology (Organs systems (Digestive- Food…
Basic Animal anatomy and physiology
epithelial tissue- cover the outside of the body and line organs and cavities within the body.
pseudostratified columnar epithelium- mucous membrane that lines portions of the respiratory tract
simple squamous epithelium- thin and leaky, lines blood vessels and the air sacs of the lungs
stratified squamous epithelium- found on surfaces subject to abrasion
simple columnar epitheium- lines the intestines secreting digestive juices
cuboidal epitheliium- makes up kidney tubules and many glands
connective tissue- hold many tissues and organs together in place
Blood- carry oxygen, white blood cells, and platelets aid in blood clotting
cartilage- a strong yet flexible support material made up of chondroitin sulfate
adipose tissue- pads and insulates the body and stores fuel as fat molecules
loose connective tiisue- binds epithelia to underlying tissue and holds organs in place
fibrous connective tissue- found in tendons which attach muscles to bones
Bone- calcium, magnesium, and phosphate ions combine into a hard mineral within the matriz
muscle tissue- responsible for body movement
Skeletal muscle- responsible for voluntary movements. consist of bundles of long cells that are called muscle fibers
smooth tissue- found in walls of the digestive system and other organs. cells are spindle shape
cardiac muscles- form the contractile wall of the heart. Has branched fibers that are inter connective via intercalated disk
Nervous tissue- functions in receipt, processing and transmitting information
neurons- receives nerve impulses from other neurons via its cell body and extensions called dendrites.
Glia- help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons.
Digestive- Food processing. Mouth, pharynx, esophagus stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, anus
Circulatory- internal distribution of materials. Heart, blood vessels, blood.
respiratory- Gas exchange. Lungs, trachea, other breathing tubes
Immune and lymphatic- Body defense. Bone marrow, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, lymph vessels
Excretory- disposal of metabolic waste. Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Edocrine- Coordination of body activities. Pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal
Reproductive- gamete production. Ovaries and testes
Nervous- coordination of body activities. Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs
Integumentary- Protection against mechanical injury, infection,dehydration. Skin and its derivatives
Skeletal- Body support, protection of internal organs, movement. Skeleton
Muscular- locomotion and other movement. Muscles
Breaking food into small molecules
Mechanically, chemically, intracellular, extracellular
oral cavity- mouth chews food, adds saliva
Esophagus- pushed by peristalsis, allowed into stomach through splicer
stomach- walls stretches to allow storage, mixes food with acid. Denatures proteins, and kills pathogens
Small intestines- skinny, alot of the work done here.
large intestine- dries out the waste, makes poop hard
Feedback systems/ types of animals
Endocrine system- Hormones, slow acting, last longer
Nervous system- Neurons, intimidate response
Negative feedback- response that reduces stimulus reduces the change of normal. EX. sweating
Positive feedback- response that amplifies stimulus. EX. giving birth
Endothermic- internal heat
exothermic- gain heat from external sources
Poikiotherm- Environment changes causes animal to adapt
Homeotherm- environment stays the same
Filter feeders- strain small organisms. Whales
Substrate feeders- live in or on food sources. tapeworms
Fluid feeders- nutrients through fluid. Tick
bulk feeders- eat large pieces of food. Humans
Macro molecules, vitamins and mineral
Protiens- amino acids
lipids- fatty acids and glycerol
nucleic acid- nucleotide
Macro molecules are used as fuel
Vegetarians do not eat meat, piscatarians do not eat meat but do eat fish, and vegans eat no animal products.
Vitamins are organic molecules that are required in small amounts.
Minerals- inorganic nutrients, cannot be made in body. required in small amounts.
Having too little can lead to malnutrition, having too much can be toxic or upset homeostatic balance causing health problems