Media Planning Lecture 6: Earned Media (Guest Lecture (Equip (Sharing…
Media Planning Lecture 6: Earned Media
Earned and interactive media
" Earned" means the media carries mentions or stories about a brand
through either publicity , social media, personal contact, or word of mouth
Earned media carry conversations, complaints and criticisms, praise, and questions
all of which is monitored by brand stewards 品牌管家
They all impact the brand reputation, which is determined by what others say about the brand
• The result is a
when a story or significant parts of it appear in the media.
• Reporters may
a brand/company in a story.
• Hits and mentions carry more credibility than advertising and other owned media, because publicity relies on an
implied third-party endorsement.
The media of sharing
The media of sharing (cont’d)
• Online communities: Fans are an example of an online virtual community organized around a topic, brand, or shared interest.
• Brand communities are also ways to develop loyalty and strong brand relationships in partnership with the brand.
• Marketers can join these online communities by buying ads or by posting images or blogs.
• Social media relationships offer opportunities for brand messages, particularly as people serve as viral marketing agents
• These trailers and posters seen on the pages of friends may actually represent user-generated ads.
• Brand communication planners have developed a growing respect for media that generate buzz, a cycle of WOM interactions.
• Buzz is best generated by disrupting common patterns of thinking.
• Viral communication describes the way a message spreads on the Internet through interconnected networks of acquaintances.
• Some media plans are specifically designed to r
each influential or early adopters
opinions are valued
• This WOM marketing strategy is known as
brand advocacy or customer referral.
• The B2C2C model illustrates the importance of a brand
advocate —a key customer or stakeholder.
Benefits of word-of-mouth to advertisers
• Consumer-driven communications
• Minimal cost
Drawbacks of word-of-mouth
• Lack of control
• Weak measurability
Allows users to
Interact with friends
Publish their own content on the internet
Refer to brands and products they like
Social media mentions (cont’d)
• Tweets invite users to share their daily doings and immediate thoughts with followers of the microblog.
• Twitter posts are searchable based on their hashtags, which operate like key words.
: by inserting a hash symbol (#) before a word in a tweet makes that word a category or topic that can be tracked.
• Reviews and Comments: the development of social media has helped reviews pop up all over the Web.
• Amazon features customer contributed reviews of its products
• Comments sections are also available at the end of stories and blogs in online news media.
Benefits of social media
Engaging the masses
• Social coordination
Drawbacks of social media
• Questionable impact
• Creating valued content
Earned and interactive media considerations
Dealing with negatives and fakes
• An unhappy customer is more than just one person’s bad experience
• Marketers must intervene in some way to turn the negative impression into a positive one.
– Private complaining
– Public complaining
• Fake sites can damage brand reputation.
• Phony likes and paid reviews damage trust.
Cheap but not free
• Most digital media demand resources,
such as staffing, hardware and software systems, maintenance and operational support, and fees.
• Social media create opportunities for valuable referrals, but it’s hard to know how much it happens.
A meta-analysis of electronic word-of-mouth elasticity (2015)
You, Y., Vadakkepatt, G. G., & Joshi, A. M.
High variance in the reported elasticities
Some studies find significant effects of
volume but not valence
價格 on sales or vice versa 反之亦然
Importance of Contextual Factors
To eWOM volume/ valence effects
+; not supported
Expertise of eWOMhosted platform
· Specialized review sites
General review sites
· Independent review sites
· Retailers’ sites
Managers of durable, low trialability, privately consumed
products (high involvement) can benefit more from eWOM.
Accessibility & trustworthiness of information is important!
Consumers trust eWOM from
neutral, expert-driven third-party sources.
Engage with your follower as the day one
Give them reasons to talk
Cost per thousand impressions
cost per click