Respiratory System Karina Espinosa Per.1 (Definitions of Lung Capacity…
Respiratory System Karina Espinosa Per.1
Major Functions of Respiratory System
Distribution of Air:
Filters, warms, and humidifies air.
Supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide to maintain homeostasis.
Anatomy of Respiratory Tract
provides and entrance for air in which it’s filtered by coarse hairs inside the
- A passageway for air and food.
- Helps keep particles from entering the trachea
- It beats continuously in opposite direction of incoming air.
- Branched mucous membrane lined tubes leading from the trachea to the alveoli. The segmental bronchi subdivided into terminal
which later leads to
- Right and left soft, spongy, cone shaped lungs separate medially by the mediastinum.
R.S. Organs and Locations
Upper Respiratory Tract:
Nose, pharynx, and larynx.
Lower Respiratory Tract:
Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs and alveoli.
Difference of Right/ Left Lung and Primary Bronchi
Has three lobes, superior, middle and inferior. The right lung is also shorter than the left.
Has two lobes, superior and inferior.
Right Primary Bronchi:
This one is wider , shorter, and straighter than the left. They both enter the hilus.
Left Primary Bronchi:
This one is thinner and longer.This bronchi divides into two lobar bronchi.
During inspiration (inhaling) your lungs get filled with air which makes them inflate. In order for your inflated lungs to fit inside your body, the ribs move up and out, and the diaphragm curves down. This happens because you muscles are contracting. During expiration (exhaling) your ribs go back to normal, your diaphragm goes back to normal and your lungs deflate. This is because your muscles are now relaxed. This is also an on going cycle.
Definitions of Lung Capacity Terminology
The respiratory capacities are the combinations of two or more volumes.
TV+ IRV (~3000 mL)
Functional Residual Capacity:
TV+ IRV+ ERV (~4600 mL)
Total Lung Capacity:
Sum of all volumes
Air moved by one respiration, about 500 mL.
Additional air taken in during maximal inhalation
Additional air expired during forced exhalation.
Amount of air left in alveoli after forced expiration that keeps alveoli inflated (~1200 mL)
Dead Space Volume:
Air remaining in bronchial tree that is not involved in gas exchange.
This includes chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma.
Uncontrolled cell growth and development of tumors in the lungs.
Bacterial or viral infection of the lungs.
A viral infection that changes rapidly year to year which changes the severity of symptoms.
Bacterial infection in the respiratory system caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Chronically inflamed hypersensitive bronchial pasajes caused by allergens.
Internal/ External Respiration
The oxygen spreads out from the blood into tissues. The oxygen's partial pressure in the blood is reduced from 100 mmHg to 40 mmHg. Carbon dioxide spreads into the blood from the tissue. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood is increased from 400 mmHg to 45 mmHg.
The oxygen spreads from the alveolar air into the blood. The partial pressure of oxygen in the blood is increased from 40 mmHg to 100 mmHg. Carbon dioxide spreads out from the blood into the alveolar air. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood is reduced from 45 mmHg to 40 mmHg.