REPORTED SPEECH (Reporting verb (in present (simple, continuous, perfect),…
in present (simple, continuous, perfect)
no tense changes
In the past
tenses move back one tense (e.g. present perfect to past perfect)
SAY vs TELL
agree, ask, demand, offer, promise, refuse, threaten
advise, ask, convince, encourage, invite, order, persuade, remind, tell, warn
someone + to-infinitive
admit, apologize for, deny, insist on, suggest
(preposition) + -ING
accuse...of, blame...for, congratulate...on/for, praise...for, thank...for, warn...against
someone + preposition + -ING
add, admit, argue, claim, complain, deny, explain, mention, predict, promise, suggest, think, warn
+ (THAT) + clause
assure, convince, inform, promise, reassure, remind, tell, warn
someone + (that) clause
pronouns and possessives
'here and now' words
Direct vs. Indirect Speech
"Have you ever been to Spain?" Soraya and Virginia said/asked.
Soraya and Virginia asked if they had ever been to Spain.
orders, suggestions, advice, ...