29.2 "Europe Plunges Into War (The Great War Begins (The central…
29.2 "Europe Plunges Into War
The Great War Begins
Why did Germany declare war on France?
Expecting Germany to join Austria, Russia also mobilized along the German Border and Germany didn't like that. Germany also didn't like the fact that Russia was helping out France making a war start because of that.
The central power countries where Germany and Austria- Hungary, they were known as the Central powers because of their location in the heart of Europe.
Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire would later join the central powers in the hopes of regaining lost territories
What country had taken over territories that Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire wanted to regain?
Austria-Hungary had the territories that they wanted.
Great Britain, France, and Russia together were know as the Allied powers or the allies. Japan also joined in within weeks so did Italy
Italy had been a member of the Triple alliance with Germany and Austria- Hungary. But they joined the other side after accusing their former partners of unjustly starting the war
In the later summer of 1914 millions of soldiers marched happily off to battle
only a few people foresaw the horror ahead, one of them was Britain's foreign minister, Sir Edward Grey
As the soldiers were matching he said to his friends "The lamps are going out all over Europe. We shall not see them lit again in our lifetime"
Austria's declaration of war, Russia, Serbia's ally began moving its army toward the Russian- Austrian border.
Expecting Germany to join Austria, Russia also mobilized along the German border
Germany, Russia's Mobilization amounted to the declaration of war
August 1, the German government declared war on Russia
The Battle on the Eastern Front
As the war on the Western Front claimed thousands of lives, both sides were sending millions more men to fight on the Eastern Front
This area was a stretch of
battlefield along the German and Russian border.
Russians and Serbs battled Germans and Austro-Hungarians
This war was a more mobile war than in the west
Why might the war on the Eastern Front have been more mobile than that on the Western Front?
This was because in the Western Front, the soldiers were mostly in trenches fighting for small stretches of land
Slaughter and stalemate were still common
At the beginning of the war, Russia forces launched an attack into Austria and Germany
In August, Germany counterattacked at Tannenberg
In a four-day battle, Germany crushed Russia and drove it into full retreat
30,000 Russia soliders were killed
The Russians did better against the Austrians
Defeated them twice in September 1914
December 1914: Austrians turn the tide
They defeat the Russians and push them out of Austria Hungary
1916: Russia's war effort near collapse
Russia had yet to industrialize
Therefore, they were always short on supplies:
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How did Russia's industrialization affect its war effort?
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Why hadn't Russia industrialized?
How did the Austrians defeat the Russians?
How was the Eastern Front different from the Western?
Leader of Russia
The Bloody Stalemate
Why did Germany attack France first?
They had a plan to take Paris and rush east to attack Russia
The summer of 1914 turned to fall, the war had turned into a bloody stalemate or dead lock
This deadlocked region in northern France became known as the Western Front.
Defeat France in the west, rush east to attack Russia.
Germans felt they could carry out such a plan because Russia lagged behind the rest of Europe in its railroad system and thus would take longer to supply its front lines.
Early on, it appeared that Germany would do just that. By early September, German forces had swept into France and reached the outskirts of Paris
Germans looked to make a major victory soon
On September 5, however, the Allies regrouped and attacked the Germans northeast of Paris, in the valley of the Marne River
Every available soldier was hurled into the struggle. When reinforcements were needed, more than 600 taxicabs rushed soldiers from Paris to the front. After four days of fighting, the German generals gave the order to retreat.
The defeat of the Germans left the Schlieffen Plan in ruins. A quick victory in the west no longer seemed possible.
In the east, Russian forces had already invaded Germany. Germany was going to have to fight a long war on two fronts. Realizing this, the German high command sent thousands of troops from France to aid its forces in the east.
Meanwhile, the war on the Western Front settled into a stalemate.
By early 1915, opposing armies on the Western Front had dug miles of parallel trenches to protect themselves from enemy fire. This set the stage for what became known as trench warfare.
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Why was the Schlieffen Plan no longer possible?
About the Schlieffen
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This was the first major clash on the Western front, and the most important.
Why were land gains so small?
War was very small, not much progress was being made, just more people being killed with advanced weapons