Chapter 4 - Theories in Scientific Research and Chapter 5 Research Design,…
Chapter 4 - Theories in Scientific Research and Chapter 5 Research Design
Theories are the explanation of natural or social behaviors, events or phenomena.Theories should explain what happened thru the correlation between two constructs. Temporal precedence and Rejection of alternative hypothesis.Scientific theories are different from theological, philosophical, or other explanations in that
scientific theories can be empirically tested using scientific methods
There are two types of explanations
which explains why a particular event happened. Example: Why you failed a test.
: explains a class of situations or events. Example why students failed the exam.
ATTRIBUTES OF A GOOD THEORY
FALSIFIABILITY - Disprovable
PARSIMONY - “Ockham’s razor the simplest theory is the one that is true.
One of the most important factors is choosing your research design.Experimental Studies, Quasi experimental, Field Surveys, Secondary data analysis (data collected by another source). Case research, Focus groups and Action Research.
BUILDING BLOCKS OF THEORY
1 Contructs are chosen to specifically explain phenomeno.
Propostions are based on deductive logic (cause and effect).
3.Logic represents the explanation that acts like glue in connecting constructs.
Assumptions and boundary conditions that address values, time and space.
APPROACHES TO THEORIZING
Bottom Up Conceptual Analysis
Extend or modify existing theories
4.Apply existing theories.
SOCIAL SCIENCE THEORY
Consist of Agency Theory, Planned Behavior and Innovation diffusion theory. Agency involves two parties agent and principle.
GENERAL DEFERENCE THEORY - Focuses on deviant and anti-social behavior
Key Attributes of Research Design consists of the following. Internal Validity observes change in the dependent variable.
External Validity refers to the observed sample population.Construct validtiy, Statistical conclusion and Improving Internal and External Validty
ETHONOLOGY RESEARCH BASED ON ANTHROPOLOGY