George Soria Period: 2 Respiratory System (Breathing Mechinasims (Air…
George Soria Period: 2 Respiratory System
Main functions of the Respiratory System
Distribution of air
filters, warms, humidifies air
Supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
irritants from inspired air and eliminates them through coughing and sneezing.
enables sound production as expired air passes over the vocal cords
anatomy of the respiratory tract
Lower respiratory tract (LRT)
Upper respiratory tract (URT)
Location of upper and lower tract
Respiratory system transports air into the microscopic alveoli where gases are exchanged. The process of gasses are between the atmosphere and body cells is called respiration.
Air enters and leaves the lungs through a set of passageways.
In the process of inhalation, the intercostal muscles receive a series of nerve impulses which cause them contract this includes the diaphragm.
Contractions cause the thoracic cavity to expand and cause the lungs to expand. Expansion lowers the air pressure
Inhalation is followed by exhalation and during this process the intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax.
The air within the lungs is compressed and the exhaled air flows out into the atmosphere. The lungs consist of millions of cup-sized sacs called alveoli.
Definitions of lung capacity terminology
Spirometry: measurement of different air volumes
Tidal volume: air moved by one respiration, about 500 mL
Inspiratory reserve volume: additional air taken during maximal inhalation
Expiratory reserve volume: additional air expired during forced that keeps alveoli inflated.
Dead space volume: air remaining in branchial tree that is not involved in gas exchange.
internal and external respiration
Mechanism of external respiration
The lungs allows exchange of gases between blood and alveoli by diffusion
Diffusion: is a passive movement down a concentration gradient
The oxygen moves out of blood in the capillary and into tissue cells
The carbon dioxide moves from tissue cells into capillary blood.
Disorders of the respiratory system
Chronic obstructive Pulmonary Disorder; includes chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma
Uncontrolled cell growth and development of tumors in the lungs
Bacterial or viral infection of the lungs
a viral infection; There are many variations of this virus and it changes rapidly year to year which changes the serenity of symptoms
Bacterial Infection the respiratory system caused by Mycobacterium turberculosis