Cardiovascular System (Anatomy of the Heart ( All chambers and valves (4…
Anatomy of the Heart ( All chambers and valves
pulmonary semilunar valve (pulmonic valve)
bicuspid valve (mitral valve)- blood flows through left atrium and left ventricle from here
tricuspid valve- blood flows through right atrium and right ventricle from here
aortic valve (left semi lunar valve) (left arterial valve)
superior & inferior vena cava
left & right pulmonary artery
left and right pulmonary vein
subclavian artery & vein
left common cartoid
Blood Flow through the heart and body
1- blood comes in from the superior vena cava & inferior vena cava into the right atrium.
2: when the blood goes into the right atrium it goes through the Tricuspid valve into the right ventricle, which forces the blood out through the Pulmonary Semilunar valve, through the pulmonary trunk/ Pulmonary artery towards the lungs so it can pick up more oxygen and repeat the cycle again.
just came from the lungs, is carried by the pulmonary vein
This blood travels into the left atrium, through the bicsupid valve, and into the left ventricle. The left ventricle forces the blood out through the aortic semilunar valve, through the aorta. From here the blood is sent to all regions of the body to deliver the oxygen to the cells.
pulmonary circulation eliminates carbon dioxide and oxygenates blood lung pathway
systemic circulation delivers blood to all body cells and carries away waste
Layers of the heart
Epicardium- thin layer of connective tissue
Myocardium- cardiac muscle (contracts)
Endocardium- simple squamous epithelium covering w/ blood vessels
Pericardium- 2 layered sac
visceral pericardium- inner layer
Parietal pericardium- outer layer; anchors heart to diaphragm & sternum
Serous Fluid- between layers; allows heart to beat w/o friction
Structural and Functional differences between blood vessel types
carries blood away from heart
high pressure blood
become smaller as dividing & gives rise to arterioles
Pulmonary arteries transport blood that has a low oxygen content from the right ventricle to the lungs
Systemic arteries transport oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the body tissues.
three walls of arteries; The innermost layer, the tunica intima (simple squamous). The middle layer the tunica media, is smooth muscle and is usually the thickest layer. The outermost layer,attaches the vessel to the surrounding tissue, is the tunica externa
small arteries, between arteries & capillaries
The arterioles play a key role in regulating blood flow into the tissue capillaries
form the connection between the vessels that carry blood away from the heart (arteries) and the vessels that return blood to the heart (veins).
smallest, sites of gas exchange, most numerous and only one layer
The function of capillaries is the exchange of materials between the blood and tissue cells
small veins, connecting capillaries and veins
From the venules, it flows into larger and larger veins until it reaches the heart.
return blood toward heart
flap-like value, prevents backflow of blood
The walls of veins have the same three layers as the arteries
the pulmonary veins transport blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
walls are thinner than the arteries
Disorders of the Cardiovascular System
Congenital Heart Disease- issue w/ heart structure and/or function present from birth. Caused by tetralogy of fallot, tricuspid atresia and aortic stenosis. It may cause death, and is dependent on condition.
Endocarditis/ Myocarditis- inflammation of the heart, it is caused by a virus, bacterial or fungal infection, heart valve damage, or recent surgery. Symptoms include heart palpitations, chest pain and fatigue.
Myocardial Infaraction (heart attack)- blood flow to part of heart that is blocked; caused by blood clots, plaque in coronary arteries and high blood pressure. Symptoms are chest pain, dizziness or pain radiating to arm, jaw , abdomen or back.
Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)- arteries narrow & reduce blood flow to extremities. Caused by limb trauma, smoking, or family history. Symptoms include, leg & arm pain, weak pulse or wounds that will not heal
Cerebrovascular Accident (stroke)- blood flow to a portion of the brain is interrupted (stroke). Caused by blood clot in artery to the brain, clogged arteries or aeurysm. Symptoms include severe headache, change in alertness or memory loss.
Major functions of the Cardiovascular System
cardiac muscle tissue, interconnected cells, and has four chambers: 1: right atrium 2: right ventricle 3: left atrium 4: left ventricle
1: Arteries- takes blood away from the heart
2: capillaries- gas exchange
3: Veins- brings blood towards heart
1: Plasma- liquid portion of blood
2: Erythocytes (RBC)- carries hemoglobin & oxygen
3: Leukocytes (WBC)- fights infection/ formed in bone marrow
4: Thrombocytes (Platelets)- cell fragment formed in bone marrow from megakaryocytes
Major Arteries and Veins of the body
common iliac artery
common carotid artery
anterior tibiial artery
inferior/ superior vena cava
common iliac vein
external jugular vein
external iliac vein
great saphenous vein
internal jugular vein
internal iliac vein
Cardiac Cycle and the ECG
each complete beat is called cardiac cycle
heartbeat is regular & rhythmic
each cycle is about 0.8 seconds long, is subdivided into systole (contraction phase) and diastole ( relaxation phase)
stroke volume- volume of blood ejected from one ventricle w/ each beat
Cardiac input- amount of blood that one ventricle can pump each minute; average is about 5 L per minute at rest
visible tracing of these electrical signals (electrocardiogram or ECG)
normal ECG has three deflections or waves
P Wave- associated w/ depolarization of the aorta
QRS complex- associated w/ depolarization of the ventricles
T- wave- associated w/ repolarization of ventricles