Into the 16th Century: 1477-1520 Franco-Flemish Composers after 1477 (1)…
Into the 16th Century: 1477-1520 Franco-Flemish Composers after 1477
1) The new power structure: Central Europe after 1477
Europe after 1477
The king of France controlled the duchy of Burgundy after 1477, the death of Charles the bold.
Marital alliance in 1478 between the Low Countries (possessions of former Burgundy) and the Holy Roman Empire.
Mary the Duchess of Burgundy (Lowlands) + Maximilian I the Holy Roman Emperor (Alsace and Austria)
1492: consolidation of Spain into a modern kingdom (Muslims and Jews were expelled)
Italian courts continued to be among the most generous patrons of art and music.
2) Franco-Flemish Composers:1480-1520
Josquin Desprez (1450-1521)
The greatest composer of his time. His works of all genres display high level of varied styles.
Born in Hainaut, trained as a choirboy.
Held prestigious positions at courts and churches in France and Italy (paid the highest salary)
His music is praised for expressing emotions, a core theme of the Renaissance.
Three books of his works were printed by Petrucci, the first printer of polyphonic music.
alternates between homophony and imitation
features everchanging combinations of 2, 3, or 4 voices, with registral contrasts with paired duets.
each phrase receives its own treatment that fits the rhythm and the meaning of the words.
constantly changing texture:
the form of the poem determined the form of the music.
naturally declaimed words:
accented syllables given emphasis with longer, higher notes or short melismas or syncopation.
Music as Expressive of Feelings and Ideas
text depiction: using musical gestures to reinforce visual images in the text.
E.g. all four voices suddenly sing together in rhythmic unison
text expression: conveying through music the emotions or overall mood suggested by the text.
E.g. slow, simple, chordal homophony.