Solving Problems in Groups and Teams (Overcoming Dangers in Group…
Solving Problems in Groups and Teams
Group Problem-Solving Strategies and Formats
Group Discussion Formats
Problem Census :help equalize participation
Focus Group: Sponsoring organizations often use, their comments are used by decision makers to figure out how people in the wider world might react to ideas.
Breakout Group: When the number of members is too large for effective discussion, breakout groups can be used to maximize effective participation
Parliamentary Procedure:stilted and cumbersome, but keep a discussion on track and protect the rights of the minority against domination by the majority
Panel Discussion: leader may help the discussion along by encouraging the comments of some members, cutting off overly talkative ones
Symposium: allows each member to deliver in-depth information without interruption
Forum: allows nonmembers to add their opinions to the group’s deliberations before the group makes a decision(public agencies to encourage the participation of citizens in the decisions that affect them)
Dialogue:Sometimes the best way to tackle a problem is to stop trying to find a solution and listen👂
Solving Problems in Virtual Groups
members can’t see one another clearly, it may be difficult to convey and understand one another’s emotions and attitudes🎭
it may take virtual teams longer to reach decisions than those who meet face-to-face📲😞
the string of separate messages that is generated in a computerized medium can be hard to track, sort out, and synthesize in a meaningful way💻
only if the members have cultivated trusting relationships with one another👥
Overcoming Dangers in Group Discussion
The key to effective participation is balance
the comments of a member who is uninformed can waste time. Downright ignorant or mistaken input can distract a group.😞
When people participate, their loyalty to the group increases.
regular contact is a key factor in stimulating communication 👥
Pressure to Conform
strong tendency for group members to go along with the crowd, which often results in bad decisions👎
A group’s collective striving for unanimity that discourages realistic appraisals of alter- natives to its chosen decision :red_flag:
Information Underload and Overload
The decline in efficiency that occurs when the rate or complexity of material is too great to manage. :red_flag:
The decline in efficiency that occurs when there is a shortage of the information necessary to operate effectively. :red_flag:
Approaches and Strategies in Problem Solving
A Structured Problem-Solving Approach
Evaluate Possible Solutions
Can the proposal be implemented by the group?（成员们要能最大限度地利用对他们有利的力量克服阻碍他们的因素）
Does the proposal contain any serious disadvantages?💰
Will this proposal produce the desired changes?（whether it successfully overcomes the restraining forces）
Develop Creative Solutions
The biggest danger is the tendency of members to defend their own ideas and criticize others’👎
Criticism is forbidden🤬
Share whatever comes to mind
Share a lot of ideas
Combine and build upon ideas
Use the Nominal Group Technique
Implement the Plan
Determine necessary resources
Define individual responsibilities
Identify specific tasks to be accomplished
Plan ahead for emergencies :warning:
Analyze the Problem
state the problem as an open question that encourages exploratory thinking 🧠rather than forcing them to make a choice
Identify Criteria for Success：Phrasing the challenge as an open-ended question will help the group identify the criteria for a successful solution
Gather Relevant Information ：need to know important facts before they can make decisions or even understand the problem
Identify Supporting and Restraining Forces：to list all of the forces that hinder (restrain) the group and all of those that help (impel) it📜
Identify the Problem: Sometimes a group’s problem is easy to identify but sometimes is hard.🧐
Follow Up on the Solution
Meet periodically to evaluate progress
Revise the group’s approach as necessary
is given the power to make decisions
works well with noncritical questions that would waste the whole group’s time
is quick, so it comes into play when there simply isn’t time for a group to decide what to do. 👍
When overused, however, this approach causes problems. Much of the time, group decisions are of higher quality and gain more support from members than those made by an individual. 👎
Full participation can increase the quality of the decision as well as the commitment of the members to support it👍
It can take a great deal of time, which makes it unsuitable for emergencies👎
Problem Solving in Groups :When and Why
Advantages of Group Problem Solving
Resources: greater collection of resources💪
Accuracy :increased likelihood of catching errors🧐
Commitment: higher commitment to carrying them out👌
Diversity: Working with others allows us to consider approaches and solutions we might not think of otherwise💫(requires special effort in different cultural backgrounds)
participative decision making
A process in which people contribute to the decisions that will affect them. :red_flag:
When to Use Groups for Problem Solving
Are Individuals’ Tasks Interdependent? (The best tasks for groups are ones in which members can help one another in some way🤝)
Is There More Than One Decision or Solution? (By contrast, a problem with only one solution won’t take full advantage of a group’s talents.)
Is the Job Beyond the Capacity of One Person?
Is There Potential for Disagreement?
Setting the Stage for ProblemSolving
Maintain Positive Relationships
Establish shared norms and values.
Recognize progress toward goals.
Minimize perceived threats between members(otherwise it will reduced cohesiveness🙀)
Focus on shared or compatible goals.
Emphasize members’ interdependence.
Recognize threats from outside the group.
Develop mutual liking and friendship.
Share group experiences.
Recognize Stages of Team Development
conflict stage: When group members openly defend their positions and question those of others.
emergence stage: When a group moves from conflict toward a single solution.
Statements become more tentative again: “I guess that’s a pretty good idea,” “I can see why you think that way.”☺️
orientation stage: When group members become familiar with one another’s positions and tentatively volunteer their own.
在坚持自己的观点之前，会先评估形势calm before the storm🌪
reinforcement stage: When group members endorse the decision they have made.