What is the impact of feedback on learners? (Processes where learner makes…
What is the impact of feedback on learners?
Processes where learner makes sense if performance-relevant information to promote their learning. (Henderson et al. 2019, p. 17).
Complex and social mechanism
makes a difference to what students do
. It does not stop when students’ work is returned to them. Without student action, we cannot meaningfully use the term feedback.”. (Henderson et al. 2019, p. 4).
process that influences their capabilities or actions
Forms of Feedback Impact (Henderson et al. 2019, p. 26)
How students think: "to improve learner capacity to effectively engage in the feedback process itself and to be able to judge what they can and cannot do" (p. 27)
Evaluative judgement (Tai et al. 2018)
It is a larger assessment paradigm (Panadero et al. 2019, p. 158)
Enhanced through peer assessment, formative teacher's feedback and self-feedback
Evaluative knowledge/ expertise
“Specific aspect of individuals’ awareness of their own approaches to learning and their capacities to control it” (Meyer et al. 2015, p. 279)
there are two stages involved in that concept - not just the
awareness of learning processes being used by oneself in given contexts
, but also
self-regulatory (internal) control over such processes in that same context.
“The relationship serves both as a mechanism for engagement with feedback and as a potential impact in the sense of strengthening of an educational bond, this being mutually constitutive.” (Henderson et al. 2019, p. 28)
“The impact on the learner may be by design, but could also be unintended, unexpected and thereby potentially unnoticed. [...] In Hattie’s (2009) meta-analysis a third of feedback studies were found to have a detrimental effect on learning attainment. Why this is so and for whom, under which circumstances is less well known.” (Henderson et al. 2019, p. 28)
“The effect may evolve over time as the learner processes the information and comes to understand it in different ways.” (Henderson et al. 2019, p. 30)
“In feedback processes, the assessment performance is a form of practice and so is the way in which the learner may engage and react to feedback information. Through this practice, the learner both negotiates and reifies their identity which in turn influences future participation.” (Henderson et al. 2019, p. 28)
Affective or motivational
“[...] the mechanisms that cause such effects and their consequence need to be further researched as it is likely that this relationship is more complex than a simple positive/ negative emotional valence.” (Henderson et al. 2019, p. 28)
“There is a potential, if not likelihood, of multiple effects occurring in (short and/or long) feedback loops” (Henderson et al. 2019, p.30)
Subsequent performance / Unit outcome => what
Learning outcomes may be achieved without feedback.
“Grades or formal measures of achievement are poor representations of particular performance and are very unlikely to represent the whole of a feedback effect.” (Henderson et al. 2019, p. 26).
"inner dialog" , "actively decoding feedback information, internalising it, comparing it against their own work, to make judgements about its quality and ultimately to make improvements in future work "(Nicol, 2010, p. 503)
Process or series of processes within a system
Performance information generation
Friends and colleagues
[...] a process whereby learners obtain information about their work in order to appreciate the similarities and differences between the appropriate standards for any given work, and the qualities of the work itself, in order to generate improved work (Boud & Molloy, 2013, p. 6)