Chapter 3 - Contigency Approach to Leadership (Substitutes and…
Chapter 3 - Contigency Approach to Leadership
Seek to delineate the characteristics of situations and followers and examine the leadership styles that can be used effectively
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory - Leadership Style
(Type of leadership) Leader should make a decision that matches the working style of the subordinates. Should know if the subordinates are competent and motivated to perform a given task.
Fielders Contigency Model
Match the leader's style with the situation most favorable for his or her success. When to be relationship-oriented vs. task-oriented. In order to maximize work group performance, leaders must be matched to the right leadership situation.
Path goal theory
Theory that it's a leader's responsibility to increase motivation of subordinates by clarifying paths to rewards. Leaders change their behaviors to match the situation
A directive leader lets subordinates know what's expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives specific guidance on how to accomplish tasks
A supportive leader shows concern for the needs of followers and is friendly
A participative leader consults with group members and uses their suggestions before making a decision
An achievement-oriented leader sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level
Substitutes and neutralisers
Organizational variables can neutralize the leader's influence or act as substitutes for leadership
Leader becomes irrelevant
Substitute ~ a situational variable that makes leadership unnecessary or redundant
Neutralizer ~ a situational characteristic that counteracts the leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behavior
Substitutes for leadership ~
--Experience, training, professional orientation, or the need for independence
--Routine, unambiguous, and satisfying jobs
--Explicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, or cohesive work groups
Situational model of leadership
This is a term that can be applied generically to a style of leadership, but that also refers to a recognized, and useful, leadership model. In simple terms, a situational leader is one who can adopt different leadership styles depending on the situation. Most of us do this anyway in our dealings with other people: we try not to get angry with a nervous colleague on their first day; we chase up tasks with some people more than others because we know they'll forget otherwise.
Meta-Categories of Leader Behavior and Four Leader Styles.
Low Task-Low Relationship: delegating style, low concern for both tasks and relationships
Low Task-High Relationship: participative or supportive style, provide support and encouragement, develops followers' skill and confidence, consult followers when making decisions and solving problems.
High Task-High Relationship: coaching toward achievement style, combine task and relationship behaviors
High Task-Low Relationship: authoritative style, plan short-term activities, clarify tasks, objectives and expectations, monitor operations and performance