Communicating In Groups and Teams (Characteristics of Groups and Teams…
Communicating In Groups and Teams
Followship and Communication
Types of followers
Participants: Participants attempt to have an impact
Activists Activists are more energetically and passionately engaged than participants.
Bystanders: Bystanders are aware of what’s going on around them, but they tend to hang back and watch rather than play an active role.
my experience: I often choose to be a bystander, because I don't want to take the responsibility.
Diehards Diehards will, sometimes literally, sacrifice themselves for the cause.
example: soldiers give up their lives to protect the country
Isolates: Isolates are indifferent to the overall goals of the organization and communicate very little with people outside their immediate environment.
The power of Followers
power: The ability to influence others’ thoughts and/or actions.
connection power: The influence granted by virtue of a member’s ability to develop relationships that help the group reach its goal.
example: a fundraising group seeking donations from local businesses might profit from the knowledge that one member has about which merchants are hos- pitable to the group’s cause.
reward power: The ability to influence others by the granting or promising of desirable consequences.
my experience: when I was a child, my parents often use reward power to encourage to do something
expert power: The ability to influence others by virtue of one’s perceived expertise on the subject in question.
coercive power: The power to influ- ence others by the threat or imposition of unpleasant consequences.
legitimate power: The ability to influ- ence a group owing to one’s position in a group.
nominal leader: The person who
is identified by title as the leader of a group.
example: A CEO in the company
referent power: The ability to influ- ence others by virtue of the degree to which one is liked or respected.
Characteristics of Groups and Teams
Pattern of Interaction
all-channel network: A communication network pattern in which group members are frequently together and share all information with one another
chain network: A communicationnet- work in which information passes sequen- tially from one member to another.
sociogram: A graphic representation of the interaction patterns in a group.
wheel network: A communication network in which a gatekeeper regulates the flow of information from all other members
gatekeeper: Person in a small group through whom communication among other members flow
Role: The patterns of behavior expected of group members.
task roles Roles group members take on in order to help solve a problem.
social roles Emotional roles con- cerned with maintaining smooth personal relationships among group members. Also termed “maintenance functions.”
informal role A role usually not explicitly recognized by a group that describes functions of group members, rather than their positions. These are sometimes called “functional roles.”
dysfunctional roles Individual roles played by group members that inhibit the group’s effective operation.
formal role A role assigned to a person
by group members or an organization, usually to establish order.
example: president, coach
Rules and Norms
norms: Shared values, beliefs, behav- iors, and procedures that govern a group’s operation.
procedural norms Norms that describe rules for the group’s operation.
tasknorms Groupnormsthatgovern the way members handle the job at hand
social norms Group norms that govern the way members relate to one another
rule: An explicit, officially stated guide- line that governs group functions and member behavior.
text example: In a classroom, rules include how absences will be treated, the firmness of deadlines, and so on.
The Nature of Groups and Teams
What Makes a Group a Team
Team: Teams share the same qualities as groups, but they take group work to a higher level.
Standards of excellence
my experience: when my team members have higher standard at doing things, it often motivates me to do better
my experience: sometimes in order to achieve the greater good, I put group's goal above my own interest
External support and recognition
Competent team members
A results-driven structure.
Clear and inspiring shared goals
text example: Members of a winning team know why their group exists, and they believe that purpose is important and worthwhile.
Virtual Groups: People who interact with one another via mediated channels, without meeting face-to-face.
What is a Group?
Group: A small collection of people whose members interact with one another, usually face-to-face, over time in order to reach goals.
Leadership and Cpmmunication
trait theories of leadership: A school of thought based on the belief that some people are born to be leaders and others are not.
democratic leadership: A style in which the leader invites the group’s participation in decision making.
laissez-faire leadership: A style in which the designated leader gives up his or her formal role, transforming
the group into a loose collection of individuals.
authoritarian leadership: A style in which the designated leader uses coercive and reward power to dictate the group’s actions.
servant leadership: A style based on the idea that a leader’s job is mostly to recruit outstanding team members and provide the support they need to do a good job.
situational leadership: A theory that argues that the most effective leader- ship style varies according to leader– member relations, the nominal leader’s power, and the task structure.
Leadership Grid: A two-dimensional model that identifies leadership styles as a combination of concern for people and for the task at hand.
transformational leaders: Defined by their devotion to help a team fulfill an important mission.
Becoming a leader
emergent leader: A member who assumes leadership roles without being appointed by higher-ups.
text example: Juries elect forepersons, and committees elect chairper sons. Teams choose a captain. Negotiating groups elect spokespeople.
Goals of Groups and Their Members
Groups Goal: Goals that a group collectively seeks to accomplish.
my experience: when I joined a basketball team in high school, our goal was to win the competition held by government
Individual Goal: Individual motives for joining a group.
hidden agendas: Individual goals that group members are unwilling to reveal.
I think the concept of the hidden agenda is really interesting because people often have their own goal, so l think, as a leader, learning how to make members achieve group goal and individual goal as the same time is quite difficult and interesting.
The idea about transformation leader is quite confusing to me, after reading the context it seems to me that transformation leader is a perfect type of leader, but there are no rules to follow.