Cardiovascular System Ana Cendejas…
Cardiovascular System Ana Cendejas Period:7
Major functions of the cardiovascular system
Blood - Transports oxygen and nutrient and helps regulate and maintain body temperature, and the volume of fluid in our body.
Blood vessels- Types of blood vessels are arteries , arterioles, capillaries , venules, and veins. Blood vessels form closed circuits that carry blood away from the heart or carry blood back to the heart.
Heart- highly inter connect cells
Layers of the heart
Epicardium- Thin layer of connective tissue
Myocardium- cardiac muscle, the layer that contracts
Endocardium- Simple squamous epithelium continuous with blood vessels
Disorders of the cardiovascular system
Myocardial Infarction (heart attack)- When the blood flows to part of the heart where it is blocked.
Symptoms- chest pain, sweating, and nausea.
Peripheral Artery Disease- When arteries narrow and reduce blood flow to extremities.
Symptoms- leg and arm pain, and weak pulse.
Congenital Heart Disease- An issue with heart structure. Symptoms- cyanosis common and may cause death
Endocarditis and Myocarditis - Inflammation of the heart. Symptoms- chest pain,shortness of breath, and fever.
Cerebrovascular Accident (stroke)- When blood flows to a portion of the brain.
Symptoms- severe headache, memory loss, and change n senses.
Blood Flow through Heart
Anatomy of the heart
Right and Left atrium- Thin walled chambers that receive blood from the veins
Right and Left ventricles- Thick walled chambers that pump blood out of the heart.
Pulmonary semilunar valve
Aortic semilunar valve
Semilunar valves- close under very high pressure and make the "dup" sound of the heartbeat
Common carotid artery
Common iliac artery
Anterior tibial artery
Superior vena cava
Internal jugular vein
External jugular vein
Great saphenous vein
External iliac vein
Internal iliac vein
Common iliac vein
Inferior vena cava
Blood vessels - Form closed circuit that carry blood away from the heart to cells and back to the heart again
Capillaries- sites of gas exchange between blood and tissue cells
Arterioles - Small arteries
Arteries- carry blood away from heart
Veins- Return blood towards the heart
Venules- Small veins that connect capillaries and veins
A cardiac cycle is each complete heart beat. The average is 72 beats per minute
QRS complex- associated with depolarization of the ventricles
P wave- associated with depolarization of the atria
T wave - associated with repolarization of the ventricles