Urban Challenges - Geography 🌇 (Megacities 🌁 (XXL) (Manilla Challenges…
Urban Challenges - Geography 🌇
LICs (Low Income Countries) 💵
Possible Push / Pull Factors of a place
Farming is hard work and low pay
There is little education
Rural areas are far more vulnerable to drought
Medical care is very limited in rural areas
Farming is usually on a subsistence level only and not making any money
Better leisure facilities
Higher standards of living
Better economic prospects
Rio is the
hub for manufacturing which creates jobs for the inhabitants. In the surrounding areas of Rio, there are 12.5 Million people.
Rio is important to Brazil nationally because as well as contributing 5.1% of the GDP, it is also the hub for many of the manufacturers.
Rio is the second largest exporter city in the world. It exports $7.49million every year.
Most of the growth 🔢 is caused by the young age of economic migrants from the North West that suffer from drought
Schooling is poor outside the capital
Not much healthcare
No ownership of land
Housing with amenities
Entertainment and leisure
Rios Favellas have increased in population due to high rural to urban migration. This brings in young people who have children and cause high natural increase
People often construct their own houses 👷 so they end up being of poor quality and can fall down
Drugs gangs control some favellas leading to high crime rates 🔪 - some as high as a 2.5% murder rate
Services and amenities can be an issue in favellas and 12% of people don't have access to clean water 🚱, 30% have no electricity ⚡ and 50% have no sewerage connection 💩
Health can be problematic with infant mortality rates of 5% and harmful smoke in the streets 🧑🏿⚕️
Government run programs have made some favellas less bad with 90% of houses made of brick 🧱 and many having fridges or TVs 📺
Biggest Issues ❌
Unemployment - If people are not in work. they cannot earn money and thus will not be able to improve their situation. This will result in more and more issues further down the line
Wealth inequality - The richest 1% of Rio earn 12% of total wealth in the area 💸
Lack of education is an issue because without education, people can not get a job in later life
The electricity grid is under a lot of stress as often people illegally tap power lines
High traffic flow causes terrible air quality and this can leas to adverse health affects
Sewers are often not properly implemented which leads to people getting ill and deceases the amount of clean water arround
Self-Help: These kind of schemes are when the government provides people with materials for people to improve their own lives - for example, brick and glass to make better homes 🏠
Site and Service Schemes: These are larger scale projects undertaken by authorities to, for example, move people out of favellas into newly built brick accommodation
Improvement Schemes in Rio included the construction of:
Hill sides were secured
Cable cars were installed
Pacifying police were implemented to reduce crime
Credit schemes were set up in order to help people improve their homes
Literacy rate did improve
Public transport has improved
Roads are now wide enough to facilitate garbage collection
Cable car project gave people chance to commute across the city
People who owned homes were able to maintain them
Formally unnamed roads had names
The budget did not allow for all favellas to be included
Some favellas were considered too high risk
Unemployment remained high
The funding for some projects - like cable car- was removed
Rio has been involved in numerous international events such as the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympics.
The main international airport is located here and it is the most visited city in the southern hemisphere with 2.8 million tourists improving the economy, most likely attracted by the yearly carnivals.
HICs (High Income Countries) 💷💶💵
The location of London was chosen by the Romans to to the fact that it is located on the River Thames this was a tidal river so supplies could be shipped in to its ports. Today it has good connectivity to the M25 so it is a successful city 🛣️
London houses the UK parliament and makes up for 22% of the UK's GDP. Over 800, 000 people commute to London every day.
London is the second most visited city in the world second only to Paris. It is a financial hub and is the HQ city for many businesses
Shoreditch is an old industrial area of London that has been converted into a trendy living area in the city. For example, old warehouses have been converted to flats.
This brings in more money to older areas and provides more housing for the rich.
On the other hand, it drives out the poorer as people can no longer afford to live in a previously cheap area.
Dereliction is caused when an
London is the UK's capital city. It is where the government sits and it is the UK's largest and wealthiest cities.
London has hosted important sporting events such as the 2012 Olympics and the Commonwealth Games.
Challenges in London
Almost a quarter of London's waste goes to landfill sites. This contributes to wider environmental problems, adding to greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
London suffers from air pollution, due to the sheer size of the city, dense road network and tall buildings.
London is an incredibly unequal city. House prices are higher in London than in any other area.
Life expectancy rates are much higher in wealthy areas of London. There is a clear West-East divide. From Kensington and Chelsea to Newham, life expectancy falls one year.
Children across London do not get equal exam grades, but some of the poorest schools are amongst the fastest improving schools in the country.
Lea Valley/Stratford/Olympic park regeneration
Stratford was once a derelict and poor area before being regenerated and turned into what we now know as the Olympic park.
Reasons for regeneration
The River Lea was polluted with plastics and other objects.
Derelict/abandoned land was overgrown and contaminated with chemicals, making it a hazard to people.
There was a landfill site in view of the city, creating a negative view of the area.
Had a high crime rate that was rising.
There was very little green space.
Regular incidences of burnt cars, debris and litter.
Road conditions were poor and roads were narrow.
Around 100 hectares of green open space
The East Village or Athletics Village provided homes for 2800 people.
Two new sports venues that are open to public and used by schools.
Now home to West Ham F.C, still hosts athletics in summer and hosts concerts.
New commercial development employs 25,000 people.
Here East (new name for media centre) has created 5000 jobs.
There is new and improved transport links. There are new walking routes and cycling routes and new habitats have been credited. Waterways have been cleared and the new homes are water and energy efficient. By 2030, 10,000 new homes will be built and there will be 20,000 jobs.
This project cost the government around £9 billion to go forward.
Only around a third of the housing is actually affordable.
Sustainable Future 🌏
Freiburg is in the South-West of Germany and is a town, just East of France and is West of Munich.
It's population is around 230,000 and in 1970, it set a goal of urban sustainability and is now one of the world's greenest cities.
It collects rainwater for us indoors, pervious pavements that allow rainwater to soak through, unpaved tramways and drainage wetlands.
It has about 400 solar panel installations in the city. It has strict policies on energy saving, efficient technology and the use of renewable energy sources.
40% of the city is forested 44,000 trees have been planted in parks and streets. Only native trees and shrubs are planted in the 600 hectares of parks.
Has a tram system that is cheap and accessible.
There are 500 cars per 1000 people and restrictions on car spaces.
The tram network covers 30km and is connected to 168km of city bus routes.
Social and economic planning
Local people can invest in renewable energy.
Financial rewards can be given to people who compost their green waste and use textile nappies.
Provide employment for people in sustainability.
Hold conferences on sustainability.
Urban transport (also look at the Freiburg section for more information)
Why has urban traffic increased?
Greater quality of life and wealth - many families have two cars.
People commute to work further distances than in the past.
Reduction in public transport at the expense of private cars.
What are the damaging effects of the increase in urban traffic?
Congestion, especially at peak travel times.
Danger of accidents rises.
Health problems increases - asthma, and other respiratory illnesses.
Air pollution from exhaust fumes, especially in large cities like London.
Cost of petrol/diesel and the use of non-renewable sources.
Noise pollution from cars lorries and processes,
Overcrowding on commuter trains and buses,
Time is wasted in traffic jams, and roads can become gridlocked
Damage to road and house foundations caused by traffic vibrations,
How can these problems be managed?
Reduce of exclude traffic by creating traffic free zones and pedestrianised streets
Improve public transport links and increase the regularity of the services.
Toll charges, congestion charges and higher road tax to put people off driving.
Bus lanes so buses are not held up in traffic and are not causing traffic.
Parking restrictions to stop cars from blocking traffic flow.
Freiburg has an integrated traffic system. It has a tram system which is cheap and effective.
Singapore restricts entry into the city during rush hours and has high petrol prices. It also has an electronic road pricing system.
area is an area of countryside where there is a low population density
area is an area with a high population density
is where a high percentage of people move from rural to urban areas
is when the population of a place grows due to birth rates being higher than death rates
is the deterioration of an inner city area caused by a lack of investment
Megacities 🌁 (XXL)
Europe has many cities but few have reached Megacities due to low birth rates today
South America only has 3 megacities but is expected to have 5 by 2050 due to the fact that Rural to Urban migration is higher
Africa still has some of the highest natural increase and also still experiences rural to urban migration
North America has 3 megacities with low natural increase
Asia has the most megacities due to high natural increase and rural to urban migration
Australia has a small population in general
In the Arctic, they have penguin megacities 🐧 - not really.
Lack of clean water
They don't allow cremation - too many bodies
Lack of eduction
Lack of medical care
Stretched public transport
Overstretched power grid 🔌
Lack of jobs